Skip to main content

Bioavailability of Lead and Cadmium in Soils Artificially Contaminated with Smelter Fly Ash

Abstract

This study evaluated lead and cadmium uptake by maize grown on soils artificially spiked with smelter fly ash and possible changes in chemical fractionation of these metals in the soil. Maize grown on the less contaminated soil (1,466 mg Pb kg−1; 19 mg Cd kg−1) did not exhibit any chlorosis/necrosis symptoms or lower biomass yields compared to the control. The addition of the chelating agent ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid increased lead uptake by maize, as expected. Neither maize cultivation nor the addition of the chelant influenced significantly the chemical fractionation of lead and cadmium in the soil during the experiment.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1

References

  1. Ettler V, Vaněk A, Mihaljevič M, Bezdička P (2005a) Contrasting lead speciation in forest and tilled soils heavily polluted by lead metallurgy. Chemosphere 58:1449–1459. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2004.09.084

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  2. Ettler V, Johan Z, Baronnet A, Jankovský F, Gilles C, Mihaljevič M, Šebek O, Strnad L, Bezdička P (2005b) Mineralogy of air-pollution-control residues from a secondary lead smelter: environmental implications. Environ Sci Technol 39:9309–9316. doi:10.1021/es0509174

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  3. Ettler V, Mihaljevič M, Šebek O, Strnad L (2005c) Leaching of APC residues from secondary Pb metallurgy using single extraction tests: the mineralogical and the geochemical approach. J Hazard Mater B121:149–157. doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2005.02.001

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. Komárek M, Tlustoš P, Száková J, Chrastný V, Ettler V (2007a) The use of maize and poplar in chelant-enhanced phytoextraction of lead from contaminated agricultural soils. Chemosphere 67:640–651. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2006.11.010

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. Komárek M, Tlustoš P, Száková J, Chrastný V (2007b) The role of chloride salts in chemically enhanced phytoextraction of heavy metals from a contaminated agriculture soil. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 78:176–180. doi:10.1007/s00128-007-9029-6

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. Miholová D, Mader P, Száková J, Slámová A, Svatoš Z (1993) Czechoslovakian biological certified reference materials and their use in the analytical quality assurance system in a trace element laboratory. Fresen J Anal Chem 345:256–260. doi:10.1007/BF00322606

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Nowack B, Schulin R, Robinson BH (2006) Critical assessment of chelant-enhanced metal phytoextraction. Environ Sci Technol 40:5225–5232. doi:10.1021/es0604919

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  8. Pichtel J, Bradway DJ (2008) Conventional crops and organic amendments for Pb, Cd and Zn treatment at a severely contaminated site. Bioresour Technol 99:1242–1251. doi:10.1016/j.biortech.2007.02.042

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  9. Rauret G, López-Sanchez JF, Sahuquillo A, Barahona E, Lachica M, Ure AM, Davidson CM, Gomez A, Lück D, Bacon J, Yli-Halla M, Muntau H, Quevauviller P (2000) Application of a modified BCR sequential extraction (three-step) procedure for the determination of extractable trace metal contents in a sewage sludge amended soil reference material (CRM 483), complemented by a three-year stability study of acetic acid and EDTA extractable metal content. J Environ Monit 2:228–233. doi:10.1039/b001496f

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  10. Schmidt U (2003) Enhancing phytoextraction: the effect of chemical soil manipulation on mobility, plant accumulation, and leaching of heavy metals. J Environ Qual 32:1939–1954

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Šichorová K, Tlustoš P, Száková J, Kořínek K, Balík J (2004) Horizontal and vertical variability of heavy metals in the soil of a polluted area. Plant Soil Environ 50:525–534

    Google Scholar 

  12. Sterckeman T, Douay F, Prix N, Fourrier H, Perdrix B (2002) Assessment of the contamination of cultivated soils by eighteen trace elements around smelters in the north of France. Water Air Soil Pollut 135:173–194. doi:10.1023/A:1014758811194

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  13. Vassil AD, Kapulnik Y, Raskin I, Salt DE (1998) The role of EDTA in lead transport and accumulation by Indian mustard. Plant Physiol 117:447–453. doi:10.1104/pp.117.2.447

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

The presented study was supported by the research project from Czech Science Foundation (GAČR 526/06/0418). The institutional support was provided by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic (MSM 6046070901 and MSM 0021620855). The fly ash samples were obtained with the courtesy of Mr. Zdeněk Kunický, the technical director of the Příbram smelter (Kovohutě Příbram).

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Michael Komárek.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Komárek, M., Ettler, V., Száková, J. et al. Bioavailability of Lead and Cadmium in Soils Artificially Contaminated with Smelter Fly Ash. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 83, 286–290 (2009). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-009-9742-4

Download citation

Keywords

  • Contamination
  • Smelter fly ash
  • Bioavailability
  • Metal