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Determination of Perfluorooctanoic Acid and Perfluorooctane Sulfonate in Lake Victoria Gulf Water


In this study we present a report of investigation from the screening of perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctane sulfonate in Lake Victoria Gulf and in its source rivers. The first determined levels of perfluorinated alkylated substances in Lake Victoria ecosystem are presented. Variability in the concentrations of perfluorooctanoic acid or perfluorooctane sulfonate in river waters (range perfluorooctanoic acid 400–96,400 and perfluorooctane sulfonate <400–13,230 pg/L) was higher than for Lake waters (range perfluorooctanoic acid 400–11,650 and perfluorooctane sulfonate <400–2,530 pg/L respectively) suggesting generalized point sources such as domestic and industrial waste. The lowest limit of quantification was 400 pg/L for both analytes and limit of detection were 75 and 40 pg/L for perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctane sulfonate respectively. Typical values for precision obtained were 0.14–3.7%, with concentrations range from 400 pg/mL to 1 μg/mL).

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We thank research group at IWW (Rheinisch-Westfaelisches Institut für Wasser Moritzstr and Prof: T. Hoffmann and his Research group. Many thanks go to Jörg Warnke who helped us a lot in our inter-laboratory analysis as part of AQM. We also acknowledge DAAD for their financial support.

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Correspondence to Francis Orata.

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Orata, F., Quinete, N., Werres, F. et al. Determination of Perfluorooctanoic Acid and Perfluorooctane Sulfonate in Lake Victoria Gulf Water. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 82, 218–222 (2009).

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  • Perfluorooctane sulfonate
  • Perfluorooctanoic acid
  • LC/MS/MS
  • Lake Victoria