Skip to main content

Assessment of Biochemical Markers of Carbofuran Toxicity and Recovery Response in Tissues of the Freshwater Teleost, Clarias Batrachus (Linn)


The effects of a sublethal concentration (7.66 mg/L) of carbofuran, were assessed on Clarias batrachus. The fish were exposed to 7.66 mg of carbofuran/L for 6 days. After 6 days, fish were released into carbofuran-free water in order to study the recovery pattern. Proteins were decreased in gill and kidney and recovery was greater in gill than in kidney. Total amino acids were increased in both tissues. Ammonia level declined in gill and enhanced in kidney throughout the study period. The activities of all enzymes measured were induced in both tissues, except for aspartate aminotransaminase, which was inhibited in gill tissues.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2


  1. Begum G (2004) Carbofuran insecticide induced biochemical alterations in liver and muscle tissue of the fish, Clarias batrachus (linn) and recovery response. Aquat Toxicol 66:83–92. doi:10.1016/j.aquatox.2003.08.002

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  2. Begum G (2005a) In vivo biochemical changes in liver and gill of Clarias batrachus during cypermethrin exposure and following cessation of exposure. Pestic Biochem Physiol 82:185–196. doi:10.1016/j.pestbp.2005.02.006

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  3. Begum G (2005b) Toxicity of cypermethrin on total lipids and free fatty acids in liver, muscle, kidney and ovary of Clarias batrachus (L) and recovery response. Toxicol Environ Chem 87(1–4):253–260. doi:10.1080/02772240500043223

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. Begum G, Vijayaraghavan S (2001) Carbofuran toxicity on total lipids and free fatty acids in air breathing fish during exposure and cessation of exposure – in vivo. Environ Monit Assess 70:233–239. doi:10.1023/A:1010775224753

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. Bergmeyer HUC (1965) Aminotransferases and related enzymes. In: Bergmeyer HUC, Bernt E (eds) Methods of enzymatic analysis, vol II. Academic Press, New York, pp 735–739 760–764

    Google Scholar 

  6. Bidigare RR, King FD (1981) The measurement of glutamate dehydrogenase activity in Praunus flexuosus and its role in the regulation of ammonium excretion. Comp Biochem Physiol 70B:409–413

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  7. Bretaud S, Sanglio P, Saligaut C, Auperin B (2002) Biochemical and behavioral effects of carbofuran in gold fish, (Carassius auratus). Environ Toxicol Chem 21:175–181. doi:10.1897/1551-5028(2002)021<0175:BABEOC>2.0.CO;2

    Google Scholar 

  8. Bretaud S, Toutant JP, Sanglio P (2000) Effects of carbofuran, diuron, and nicosulfuron on acetylcholinesterase activity in gold fish, (Carassius auratus). Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 47:117–124. doi:10.1006/eesa.2000.1954

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  9. Finney DJ (1964) Statistical treatment of the sigmoid response curve. Cambridge University Press, London, p 20

    Google Scholar 

  10. Lee YL, Lardy HA (1965) Influence of thyroid hormone on glycerol-phosphate dehydrogenase in various organs of rat. J Biol Chem 240:1427–1436

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  11. Lowry OH, Rosenbrough NJ, Farr AL, Randall RJ (1951) Protein measurement with Folin–Phenol reagent. J Biol Chem 193:265–275

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  12. Moore S, Stein WH (1954) A modified ninhydrin reagent for the photometric determination of amino acids and related compounds. J Biol Chem 211:907–913

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  13. Osten RJ, Arana OA, Guilhermino L, Soares AMVM (2005) In vivo evaluation of three biomarkers in the mosquito fish (Gambusia yaucatana) exposed to pesticides. Chemosphere 58:627–636. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2004.08.065

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Shobha Rani JV, Janaiah C (1991) Ammonia metabolism in fresh water teleost, Clarias batrachus (Linn) on exposure to trichlorfon. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 46:731–737. doi:10.1007/BF01689960

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Vander Oost R, Beyer J, Vermeulen NPE (2003) Fish bioaccumulation and biomarkers in environmental risk assessment: a review. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 13:57–149. doi:10.1016/S1382-6689(02)00126-6

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  16. Vega FC, Sancho E, Ferrando MD, Andreu E (2002) Thiobencarb-induced changes in acetylcholinesterase activity of the fish Anguilla anguilla. Pestic Biochem Physiol 72:55–63. doi:10.1006/pest.2001.2581

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references


The author is grateful to the supervisor, Prof. Shantha Vijayaraghavan (Rtd) for constant guidance and help. The author thanks Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Government of India, New Delhi, for the award of fellowship during the tenure of Research Associateship.

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Ghousia Begum.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Begum, G. Assessment of Biochemical Markers of Carbofuran Toxicity and Recovery Response in Tissues of the Freshwater Teleost, Clarias Batrachus (Linn). Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 81, 480–484 (2008).

Download citation


  • Clarias batrachus
  • Tissues
  • Carbofuran toxicity and recovery