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Multivariate Analyses to Determine the Origin of Potentially Harmful Heavy Metals in Beach and Dune Sediments from Kizkalesi Coast (Mersin), Turkey

Abstract

The aim of this study was to investigate variations in heavy metal concentrations and natural and artificial sources of heavy minerals in beach and dune sediments along Kizkalesi (Mersin) coast in Turkey. To this aim, sand sediment samples were collected from 20 locations throughout Kizkalesi coast and concentrations of Zn, Ni, Cu, Co, V, Mo, Ag, Sb, Sn, Cd, W, Hg, Pb, As, Si, Al, Fe, Ca, Mg, S, K, Na, Cl, Ti, Mn and Cr were determined. Simple analyses (frequency histogram), multivariate analyses (Coefficient correlation, Cluster Analysis), Principal Component Analysis, Model Summary and ANOVA were used to analyze the concentration values. Al, Fe, Mg, Cl, Ti, Mn, Cr and Ni were dominant heavy metals. Principal Component Analysis revealed six principal components. It was confirmed by Cluster Analysis. Based on the Hierarchical Cluster analyses, three different general groups were formed at a 50% arbitrary similarity of Q-type level. The frequency histogram indicated that W, Ag, Co, V, Cu, As, Sn, Ni, Zn, Pb, Cr, Cl and Mg concentrations originated from the nearby area, while Mn, Ti, Al and Fe Mg concentrations came from either the nearby area or moderately remote sources. Data from the study area showed that the Model Summary (based on R 2 = 100%) was sufficient for the statistical data and that the Model ANOVA (variations of Pb) had a high explanatory power. The region lying on Miocene carbonate rocks of the Tauride belt were affected by the contaminants of anthropogenic origin that included coastal deposits, coastal erosion, the Kizkalesi settlement area, urban wastes, Mersin-Antalya road extending parallel to the shoreline and disposal sites of hotels.

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Correspondence to M. Gurhan Yalcin.

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Yalcin, M.G., Ilhan, S. Multivariate Analyses to Determine the Origin of Potentially Harmful Heavy Metals in Beach and Dune Sediments from Kizkalesi Coast (Mersin), Turkey. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 81, 57–68 (2008). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-008-9461-2

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Keywords

  • Heavy metals
  • Multivariate analysis
  • Dune sediments
  • Kizkalesi
  • Mersin