Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in human milk from Chelem, Yucatan, Mexico were analyzed. Relatively high levels of p,p′-DDE, γ-chlordane, β-hexacyclohexane (β-HCH) and PCB congeners 170, 28, and 44 were found. Concentration profiles by OCP groups followed the next order: ΣDDTs > ΣChlordanes > ΣHCHs > ΣChlorobenzenes > ΣDrins. Total OCPs showed a decreasing tendency with number of births (primipara and multipara and age ranks) but these differences were not significant. ΣDDT levels were lower than in other studies in Mexico, but 36% of the samples exceeded the JMPR-FAO/WHO acceptable daily intake (ADI). About 60.53% of samples exceeded the ADI value for heptachlors.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Burke ER, Holden AJ, Shaw IC (2003a) A method to determine residue levels of persistent organochlorine pesticides in human milk from Indonesian women. Chemosphere 50:529–535
Burke ER, Holden AJ, Shaw IC, Suharyanto FX, Sihombing G (2003b) Organochlorine pesticides residues in human milk from primiparous women in Indonesia. Bull environ Contam Toxicol 71:148–155
Chao H-R, Wang S-L, Lin T-Ch, Chung X-H (2006) Levels of organochlorine pesticides in human milk from central Taiwan. Chemosphere 62:1774–1785
Cohn BA, Wolff MS, Cirillo PM, Sholtz RI (2007) DDT and breast cancer in young women: new data on the significance of age at exposure. Environ Health Perspect doi:10.1289/ehp.10260
Ennaceur S, Gandoura N, Driss MR (2007) Organochlorine pesticide residues in human milk of mothers living in northern Tunisia. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 78:325–329
Hardell L, Van Bavel B, Lindström G, Carlberg M, Dreifaldt AC, Wijkström H, Starkhammar H, Eriksson M, Hallquist A, Kolmert T (2007) Increased concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls, hexachlorobenzene and chlordanes in mothers of men with testicular cancer. Environ Health Perspect 111:930–934
Harris CA, O’Hagen S, Merson GHJ (1999) Organochlorine pesticide residues and polychlorinated biphenyls in human milk in the United Kingdom 1997–1998. Human Exp Toxicol 18:602–606
IARC (1987) Monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risk to humans, overall evaluations of carcinogenicity: an updating of IARC vol 1–42, supplement 7. International Association of Research on Cancer, Lyon, France pp 350–354
IARC (1991) Monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risk to humans, Vol 53. Occupational exposure in insecticide application, and some pesticides. International Association of Research on Cancer, Lyon, France pp 179–249
INE (2004) Lindano en México, Instituto Nacional de Ecología, México 2004
IPCS (1991) Chlorobenzenes other than hexachlorobenzene. Geneva, World Health Organization, International Programme on Chemical Safety Environmental Health Criteria 128
Jensen AA (1983) Chemical contaminants in human milk. In: Gunther FA, Gunther JD (eds) Residue reviews – residues of pesticides and others contaminants in the total environment, Vol 89. Springer Verlag, New York
JMPR-FAO/WHO (2006) Inventory of IPCS and other WHO pesticide evaluations and summary of toxicological evaluations performed by the joint meeting on pesticide residues (JMPR) through 2006. Joint FAO/WHO meeting on pesticide residues (JMPR) publications
Kalantsi OI, Martin FL, Thomas GO, Alcok RE, Tang HR, Drury SC, Carmichael PL, Nicholson JK, Jones KC (2004) Different levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and chlorinated compounds in breast milk form two UK Regions. Environ Health Perspect 112:1085–1091
Kunisue T, Muraoka M, Ohtake M, Surdayanto A, Minh NH, Ueno D, Higaki Y, Ochi M, Tsydenova O, Kamikawa S, Tonegi T, Nakamura Y, Shimomura H, Nagayama J, Tanabe S (2006) Contamination status of persistent organochlorines in human breast milk from Japan: recent levels and temporal trend. Chemosphere 64:1601–1608
Nasir K, Bilto YY, Al-Shuraiki Y (1998) Residues of organochlorine hydrocarbon insecticides in human milk of Jordanian women. Environ Poll 99:141–148
Rylander L, Strömberg U, Hagmar L (2000) Lowered birth weight among infants born to women with a high intake of fish contaminated with persistent organochlorine compounds. Chemosphere 40:1255–1262
Secretaría de Salud (2000) Situación actual de la malaria y uso del DDT en México. Centro Nacional de Salud Ambiental y Centro de Vigilancia Epidemiológica, Secretaría de Salud, Diciembre 2000
Siddiqui MKJ, Srivastava A, Srivastava SP, Mehrotra PK, Mathur N, Tandom I (2003) Persistent chlorinated pesticides and intra-uterine foetal growth retardation: a possible association. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 76:75–80
Stuetz W, Prapamontol T, Erhardt JG, Classes HG (2001) Organochlorine pesticides in human milk of a Hmong hill tribe living in northern Thailand. Sci Tot Environ 273:53–60
Tsydenova OV, Surdayanto A, Kajiwara N, Kunisue T, Batoev VB, Tanabe S (2007) Organohalogen compounds in human breast milk from Republic of Buryatia, Russia. Environ Poll 146:225–232
Waliszewski SM, Pardio-Sedas VT, Chantiri JN, Infanzon RM, Rivera J (1996) Organochlorine pesticide residues in human breast milk from tropical areas in Mexico. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 57:22–28
Waliszewski SM, Aguirre AA, Infanzon RM, Benitez A, Rivera J (1999) Comparison of organochlorine pesticide levels in adipose tissue and human milk of mothers living in Veracruz, Mexico. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 52:685–690
Waliszewski MT, Bermudez ST, Infanzon RM (2002) Niveles de DDT en tejido adiposo materno, suero sanguíneo y leche de madres residentes en Veracruz, México. Revista internacional de contaminación ambiental 18(001):17–25
We thank Dr. Luis René Antonio Capurro Filograsso for reviewing an earlier version and Jorge Arturo Dominguez Maldonado for his technical assistance. This project was funded by the University of Yucatan Priori-Uady program (project FMED-05-003).
About this article
Cite this article
Rodas-Ortíz, J.P., Ceja-Moreno, V., González-Navarrete, R.L. et al. Organochlorine Pesticides and Polychlorinated Biphenyls Levels in Human Milk from Chelem, Yucatán, México. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 80, 255–259 (2008). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-007-9356-7
- Human milk
- Organochlorine pesticides
- Yucatán México