Skip to main content

Effect of Arsenic on the Onset of Menarcheal Age

Abstract

Ground water arsenic contamination is a major problem in the Bengal Delta plain. The present study investigates the effect of arsenic exposure on age at menarche in North 24-Parganas district, one of the worst affected districts. A higher mean menarcheal age of 12.50 years is reported from women residing in four arsenic affected villages in as compared to a control village (11.71 years). The differences in menarcheal age between three of the four affected villages and the control village are statistically significant (p < 0.05). The study indicates that arsenic exposure can have a negative effect on menarcheal age.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. Ahmad SA, Sayed MH, Barua S, Khan MH, Faruquee MH, Jalil A, Hadi SA, Talukder HK (2001) Arsenic in drinking water and pregnancy outcomes. Environ Health Perspect 109:629–631

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  2. Aschengrau A, Zieler S, Cohen A (1989) Quality of community drinking water and the occurrence of spontaneous abortion. Arch Environ Health 44:283–290

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Axmon A (2006) Menarche in women with high exposure to persistent organochlorine pollutants in utero and during childhood. Environ Res 102:77–82

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. Bhattacharyya R, Chatterjee D, Nath B, Jana J, Jacks G, Vahter M (2003) High arsenic groundwater: mobilization, metabolism and mitigation – an overview in the Bengal Delta Plain. Mol Cell Biochem 253:347–355

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. Chatterjee S (1994) Menarche, menopause and fertility in the Paschatya Vaidik women of West Bengal. Man India 74:271–278

    Google Scholar 

  6. Chatterjee S, Mandal A (1991) Physical growth pattern for girls (9–17 yr) from rural West Bengal. Indian J Med Res 94:346–350

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  7. Chowdhury S, Shahabuddin AK, Seal AJ, Talukder KK, Hassan Q, Begum RA, Rahman Q, Tomkins A, Costello A, Talukder MQ (2000) Nutritional status and age at menarche in a rural area of Bangladesh. Ann Hum Biol 27:249–256

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  8. Das D, Chatterjee A, Samanta G, Mandal B, Chowdhury TR, Samanta G, Chowdhury PP, Chanda C, Basu G, Lodh D, et al. (1994) Arsenic contamination in groundwater in six districts of West Bengal, India: the biggest arsenic calamity in the world. Analyst 119:168N–170N

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  9. Das Chaudhuri AB, Basu S, Chakraborty S (1993) Twinning rate in the Muslim population of West Bengal. Acta Genet Med Gemellol 42:35–39

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  10. Denham M, Schell LM, Deane G, Gallo MV, Ravenscroft J, DeCaprio Akwesasne AP (2005) Relationship of lead, mercury, mirex, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene, hexachlorobenzene, and polychlorinated biphenyls to timing of menarche among Akwesasne Mohawk girls. Pediatrics 115e:127–134

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Guha Mazumder DN, Haque R, Ghosh N, De BK, Santra A, Chakraborty D, Smith AH (1998) Arsenic levels in drinking water and the prevalence of skin lesions in West Bengal, India. Int J Epidemiol 27:871–877

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  12. Gupta A, Jaiswal TS (1992) Age at menarche among three caste groups of Jammu city. Man India 72:463–467

    Google Scholar 

  13. Haq MN (1984) Age at menarche and the related issue: a pilot study on urban schoolgirls. J Youth Adolesc 13:559–567

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. Kwok RK, Kaufmann RB, Jakariya M (2006) Arsenic in drinking-water and reproductive health outcomes: a study of participants in the Bangladesh Integrated Nutrition Programme. J Health Popul Nutr 24:190–205

    Google Scholar 

  15. Milton AH, Smith W, Rahman B, Hasan Z, Kulsum U, Dear K, Rakibuddin M, Ali A (2005) Chronic arsenic exposure and adverse pregnancy outcomes in Bangladesh. Epidemiology 16:82–86

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Rahman MM, Mandal BK, Chowdhury TR, Sengupta MK, Chowdhury UK, Lodh D, Chanda CR, Basu GK, Mukherjee SC, Saha KC, Chakraborti D (2003) Arsenic groundwater contamination and sufferings of people in North 24-Parganas, one of the nine arsenic affected districts of West Bengal, India. J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng 38:25–59

    Google Scholar 

  17. Sarkar SS, Roy Chowdhury J (1968) The secular trend of menarchael age in the city girls of Calcutta. Man India 48:346–356

    Google Scholar 

  18. Schell LM, Gallo MV, Denham M, Ravenscroft J (2006) Effects of pollution on human growth and development: an introduction. J Physiol Anthropol 25:103–112

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Sen T (1975) A study on the age at menarche of the urban Bengalee girls. A search of its secular trend. J Ind Anthrop Soc 10:173–179

    Google Scholar 

  20. Sengupta S, Gogoi G, Chetry HB (1996) Variation in menarcheal age of Assamese girls. J Indian Med Assoc 94:88–90

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  21. Shukla NB, Sharma SS, Bhusan S (1994) Age of menarche of urban and rural sport school girls. Man India 74:307–310

    Google Scholar 

  22. Von Ehrenstein OS, Guha Mazumder DN, Hira-Smith M, Ghosh N, Yuan Y, Winham G, Ghosh A, Haque R, Lahiri S, Kalman D, Das S, Smith AH (2006) Pregnancy outcomes, infant mortality and arsenic in drinking water in West Bengal, India. Am J Epidemiol 163:662–669

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

The authors acknowledge the cooperation of “Save The Environment, Calcutta”. The University Grants Commission, Govt. of India has supported the study financially (Grant No: F.PSW-022/03-04 dated 12.03.2004).

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Jaydip Sen.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Sen, J., Chaudhuri, A.B.D. Effect of Arsenic on the Onset of Menarcheal Age. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 79, 293–296 (2007). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-007-9206-7

Download citation

Keywords

  • Menarcheal age
  • Arsenic contamination