This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Baynes RE, Riviere JE (1998) Influence of inert ingredients in pesticide formulations on dermal absorption of carbaryl. Am J Vet Res 59:168–175
Baynes RE, Monteiro-Riviere NA, Riviere JE (2002) Pyridostigmine bromide modulates the dermal absorption of [14C]permethrin. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 181:164–173
Laskowski DA (2002) Physical and chemical properties of pyrethroids. Rev Environ Contamin Toxicol 174:49–170
Olson JJ, Osimitz TG, Vedula U, Reifenrath WG (2003) Skin penetration and evaporation of p-menthane-3,8-diol in ethanol and in lotion formulation after topical application to excised pig and rat skin. A model for human dermal absorption. Toxicol Sci 72:382 (Abstract No. 1582)
Presidential Advisory Committee on Gulf War Veterans’ Illnesses (1996) Gulf War Risk Factors, Final Report, Chapter Four, US Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, December, p 8. http://www.gulflink.osd.mil
Reifenrath WG, Hawkins GS (1986) The weanling Yorkshire pig as an animal model for measuring percutaneous penetration. In: Tumbleson ME (ed) Swine in biomedical research. Plenum, New York
Reifenrath WG, Chellquist EM, Shipwash EA Jederberg WW, Krueger GG (1984) Percutaneous penetration in the hairless dog, weanling pig and grafted athymic nude mouse. Evaluation of models for predicting skin penetration in man. Br J Dermatol Suppl 27:123–135
Reifenrath WG, Kammen HO, Palmer WG, Major MM, Leach GJ (2002) Percutaneous absorption of explosives and related compounds: an empirical model of bioavailability of organic nitro compounds from soil. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 182:160–168
Shah PV, Fisher HL, Sumler MR, Monroe RJ, Chernoff N, Hall LL (1987) Comparison of the penetration of 14 pesticides through the skin of young and adult rats. J Toxicol Environ Health 21:353–366
Taylor WG, Danielson TJ, Spooner RW, Golsteyn LR (1994) Pharmacokinetic assessment of the dermal absorption of N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET) in cattle. Drug Metab Dispos 22:106–112
Traynor MJ, Wilkinson SC, Williams FM (2007) The influence of water mixtures on the dermal absorption of glycol ethers. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 218:128–134
Winkenwerder W (2003) Environmental exposure report. Pesticides. US Dept of Defense. http://www.gulflink.osd.mil/envexp.html
About this article
Cite this article
Reifenrath, W.G. Enhanced Skin Absorption and Fly Toxicity of Permethrin in Emulsion Formulation. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 78, 299 (2007). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-007-9159-x
- Stratum Corneum
- Skin Penetration
- Emulsifiable Concentrate