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Table 3 Generalized linear models (GLM) for school burnout between 2006 and 2019

From: School burnout trends and sociodemographic factors in Finland 2006–2019

  School burnout
  Model 1 Model 2
Main effects n = 897,982 n = 897,982
Year of survey (ref = 2006–2007)   
2008–2009 0.01* 0.01**
2010–2011 − 0.02*** − 0.02***
2013 − 0.03*** − 0.03***
2015 0.00 0.01*
2017 − 0.03*** − 0.02***
2019 0.03*** 0.04***
School level (ref = upper secondary school) − 0.04*** 0.04***
Female 0.20*** 0.20***
Parent(s) with HE degree − 0.05***
Urban–rural (ref = urban)   
 Semi-urban − 0.02***
 Rural − 0.03***
Wald tests for interactions: Wald (df) Wald (df)
Year*gender*school level*parental education 3.36 (6)
Year*gender*school level*urban–rural 16.21 (12)
Year*gender*parental education 9.51 (6)
Year*gender*urban–rural 29.96 (12) **
Year*school level*parental education 4.84 (6)
Year*school level*urban–rural 15.44 (12)
Year*gender*school level 54.34 (6)*** 25.83 (6) ***
Year*gender 2419.36 (6)*** 1381 (6) ***
Year*school level 133.10 (6)*** 75.88 (6)***
Year*parental education 14.3 (6) *
Year* urban–rural 46.75 (12)***
Gender*school level*parental education 1.98 (1)
Gender*school level*urban–rural 12.99 (2) **
Gender*school level 159.64 (1) ***
Gender*parental education 9.14 (1) **
Gender* urban–rural 55.63 (2)***
School level*parental education 3.16 (1)
School level*urban–rural 2.89 (2)
  1. Unstandardized estimates shown, df degrees of freedom
  2. ***p < 0.001, **p < 0.01, *p < 0.05