Skip to main content


Log in

Perceived helpfulness of treatment for social anxiety disorder: findings from the WHO World Mental Health Surveys

  • Original Paper
  • Published:
Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology Aims and scope Submit manuscript



To investigate the prevalence and predictors of perceived helpfulness of treatment in persons with a history of DSM-IV social anxiety disorder (SAD), using a worldwide population-based sample.


The World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys is a coordinated series of community epidemiological surveys of non-institutionalized adults; 27 surveys in 24 countries (16 in high-income; 11 in low/middle-income countries; N = 117,856) included people with a lifetime history of treated SAD.


In respondents with lifetime SAD, approximately one in five ever obtained treatment. Among these (n = 1322), cumulative probability of receiving treatment they regarded as helpful after seeing up to seven professionals was 92.2%. However, only 30.2% persisted this long, resulting in 65.1% ever receiving treatment perceived as helpful. Perceiving treatment as helpful was more common in female respondents, those currently married, more highly educated, and treated in non-formal health-care settings. Persistence in seeking treatment for SAD was higher among those with shorter delays in seeking treatment, in those receiving medication from a mental health specialist, and those with more than two lifetime anxiety disorders.


The vast majority of individuals with SAD do not receive any treatment. Among those who do, the probability that people treated for SAD obtain treatment they consider helpful increases considerably if they persisted in help-seeking after earlier unhelpful treatments.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Similar content being viewed by others

Data availability

Access to the cross-national World Mental Health (WMH) data is governed by the organizations funding and responsible for survey data collection in each country. These organizations made data available to the WMH consortium through restricted data sharing agreements that do not allow us to release the data to third parties. The exception is that the U.S. data are available for secondary analysis via the Inter-University Consortium for Political and Social Research (ICPSR),


  1. Leichsenring F, Leweke F (2017) Social anxiety disorder. N Engl J Med 376(23):2255–2264.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  2. Kessler RC, Chiu WT, Demler O, Merikangas KR, Walters EE (2005) Prevalence, severity, and comorbidity of 12-month DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Arch Gen Psychiatry 62(6):617–627.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  3. Stein DJ, Lim CCW, Roest AM, de Jonge P, Aguilar-Gaxiola S, Al-Hamzawi A, Alonso J, Benjet C, Bromet EJ, Bruffaerts R, de Girolamo G, Florescu S, Gureje O, Haro JM, Harris MG, He Y, Hinkov H, Horiguchi I, Hu C, Karam A, Karam EG, Lee S, Lepine JP, Navarro-Mateu F, Pennell BE, Piazza M, Posada-Villa J, Ten Have M, Torres Y, Viana MC, Wojtyniak B, Xavier M, Kessler RC, Scott KM (2017) The cross-national epidemiology of social anxiety disorder: data from the World Mental Health Survey Initiative. BMC Med 15(1):143.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  4. Wittchen HU, Jacobi F, Rehm J, Gustavsson A, Svensson M, Jönsson B, Olesen J, Allgulander C, Alonso J, Faravelli C, Fratiglioni L, Jennum P, Lieb R, Maercker A, van Os J, Preisig M, Salvador-Carulla L, Simon R, Steinhausen HC (2011) The size and burden of mental disorders and other disorders of the brain in Europe 2010. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 21(9):655–679.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  5. Patel A, Knapp M, Henderson J, Baldwin D (2002) The economic consequences of social phobia. J Affect Disord 68(2–3):221–233.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  6. Wittchen HU, Fuetsch M, Sonntag H, Müller N, Liebowitz M (2000) Disability and quality of life in pure and comorbid social phobia. Findings from a controlled study. Eur Psychiatry 15(1):46–58.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  7. Bandelow B, Michaelis S (2015) Epidemiology of anxiety disorders in the 21st century. Dialogues Clin Neurosci 17(3):327–335.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  8. Koszycki D, Benger M, Shlik J, Bradwejn J (2007) Randomized trial of a meditation-based stress reduction program and cognitive behavior therapy in generalized social anxiety disorder. Behav Res Ther 45(10):2518–2526.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  9. Samantray N, Kar N, Singh P, Swain S, Singh A, Chaudhury S, Mahapatra J (2019) Efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy with paroxetine and paroxetine only for social anxiety disorder: a behavioral, placebo-controlled study. Ind Psychiatry J 28(2):211–217.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  10. Stein DJ, Vythilingum B (2007) Social anxiety disorder: psychobiological and evolutionary underpinnings. CNS Spectr 12(11):806–809.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  11. Andersson G, Cuijpers P, Carlbring P, Riper H, Hedman E (2014) Guided Internet-based vs. face-to-face cognitive behavior therapy for psychiatric and somatic disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis. World Psychiatry 13(3):288–295.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  12. Kazdin A (2017) Research design in clinical psychology, 5th edn. Pearson, Boston

    Google Scholar 

  13. Kazdin AE (2006) Arbitrary metrics: implications for identifying evidence-based treatments. Am Psychol 61(1):42–49.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  14. Hayes SA, Hope DA, VanDyke MM, Heimberg RG (2007) Working alliance for clients with social anxiety disorder: relationship with session helpfulness and within-session habituation. Cogn Behav Ther 36(1):34–42.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  15. Shikatani B, Fredborg BK, Cassin SE, Kuo JR, Antony MM (2019) Acceptability and perceived helpfulness of single session mindfulness and cognitive restructuring strategies in individuals with social anxiety disorder: a pilot study. Can J Behav Sci 51(2):83–89.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Baggaley M (2020) Value-based healthcare in mental health services. BJPsych Adv 26:198–204

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Porter M, Teisberg E (2006) Redefining health care: creating value-based competition on results. Harvard Business School Press, Boston

    Google Scholar 

  18. Harris MG, Kazdin AE, Chiu WT, Sampson NA, Aguilar-Gaxiola S, Al-Hamzawi A, Alonso J, Altwaijri Y, Andrade LH, Cardoso G, Cía A, Florescu S, Gureje O, Hu C, Karam EG, Karam G, Mneimneh Z, Navarro-Mateu F, Oladeji BD, O’Neill S, Scott K, Slade T, Torres Y, Vigo D, Wojtyniak B, Zarkov Z, Ziv Y, Kessler RC (2020) Findings from World Mental Health surveys of the perceived helpfulness of treatment for patients with major depressive disorder. JAMA.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  19. Hamberger LK, Hindman M (2005) Collaborative care of a patient with multiple, chronic physical and emotional health problems. Clin Case Stud 4(2):139–159.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Hamai TA, Felitti VJ (2022) Adverse childhood experiences: past, present, and future. In: Geffner R, White JW, Hamberger LK, Rosenbaum A, Vaughan-Eden V, Vieth VI (eds) Handbook of interpersonal violence and abuse across the lifespan: a project of the national partnership to end interpersonal violence across the lifespan (NPEIV). Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 97–120.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  21. Kessler RC, Ustün TB (2004) The World Mental Health (WMH) Survey Initiative Version of the World Health Organization (WHO) Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Int J Methods Psychiatr 13(2):93–121.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. First M, Spitzer R, Gibbon M, Williams J (2002) Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders, Research Version, Non-patient Edition (SCID-I/NP). Biometrics Research, New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York

    Google Scholar 

  23. Haro JM, Arbabzadeh-Bouchez S, Brugha TS, de Girolamo G, Guyer ME, Jin R, Lepine JP, Mazzi F, Reneses B, Vilagut G, Sampson NA, Kessler RC (2006) Concordance of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview Version 3.0 (CIDI 3.0) with standardized clinical assessments in the WHO World Mental Health surveys. Int J Methods Psychiatr 15(4):167–180.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Coplan JD, Aaronson CJ, Panthangi V, Kim Y (2015) Treating comorbid anxiety and depression: psychosocial and pharmacological approaches. World J Psychiatry 5(4):366–378.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  25. Moffitt TE, Harrington H, Caspi A, Kim-Cohen J, Goldberg D, Gregory AM, Poulton R (2007) Depression and generalized anxiety disorder: cumulative and sequential comorbidity in a birth cohort followed prospectively to age 32 years. Arch Gen Psychiatry 64(6):651–660.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  26. Kessler RC, McLaughlin KA, Green JG, Gruber MJ, Sampson NA, Zaslavsky AM, Aguilar-Gaxiola S, Alhamzawi AO, Alonso J, Angermeyer M, Benjet C, Bromet E, Chatterji S, de Girolamo G, Demyttenaere K, Fayyad J, Florescu S, Gal G, Gureje O, Haro JM, Hu CY, Karam EG, Kawakami N, Lee S, Lépine JP, Ormel J, Posada-Villa J, Sagar R, Tsang A, Ustün TB, Vassilev S, Viana MC, Williams DR (2010) Childhood adversities and adult psychopathology in the WHO World Mental Health Surveys. BJPsych 197(5):378–385.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  27. Willett JB, Singer JD (1993) Investigating onset, cessation, relapse, and recovery: why you should, and how you can, use discrete-time survival analysis to examine event occurrence. J Consult Clin Psychol 61(6):952–965.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  28. Heeringa S, Wells J, Hubbard F, Mneimneh Z, Chiu W, Sampson N, Berglund P (2008) Sample designs and sampling procedures. In: Kessler R, Ustün T (eds) The WHO World Mental Health Surveys: global perspectives on the epidemiology of mental disorders. Cambridge University Press, New York, pp 14–32

    Google Scholar 

  29. Wolter KM (1985) Introduction to variance estimation. Springer, New York

    Google Scholar 

  30. Acarturk C, Cuijpers P, van Straten A, de Graaf R (2009) Psychological treatment of social anxiety disorder: a meta-analysis. Psychol Med 39(2):241–254.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  31. Bruffaerts R, Vilagut G, Demyttenaere K, Alonso J, AlHamzawi A, Andrade LH, Benjet C, Bromet E, Bunting B, de Girolamo G, Florescu S, Gureje O, Haro JM, He Y, Hinkov H, Hu C, Karam EG, Lepine J-P, Levinson D, Matschinger H, Nakane Y, Ormel J, Posada-Villa J, Scott KM, Varghese M, Williams DR, Xavier M, Kessler RC (2012) Role of common mental and physical disorders in partial disability around the world. Br J Psychiatry 200(6):454–461.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  32. Turner SM, Beidel DC, Wolff PL, Spaulding S, Jacob RG (1996) Clinical features affecting treatment outcome in social phobia. Behav Res Ther 34(10):795–804.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  33. Stein DJ, Harris MG, Vigo DV, Tat Chiu W, Sampson N, Alonso J, Altwaijri Y, Bunting B, Caldas-de-Almeida JM, Cía A, Ciutan M, Degenhardt L, Gureje O, Karam A, Karam EG, Lee S, Medina-Mora ME, Mneimneh Z, Navarro-Mateu F, Posada-Villa J, Rapsey C, Torres Y, Carmen Viana M, Ziv Y, Kessler RC (2020) Perceived helpfulness of treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder: findings from the World Mental Health Surveys. Depress Anxiety 37(10):972–994.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  34. de Vries YA, Harris MG, Vigo D, Chiu WT, Sampson NA, Al-Hamzawi A, Alonso J, Andrade LH, Benjet C, Bruffaerts R, Bunting B, Caldas de Almeida JM, de Girolamo G, Florescu S, Gureje O, Haro JM, Hu C, Karam EG, Kawakami N, Kovess-Masfety V, Lee S, Moskalewicz J, Navarro-Mateu F, Ojagbemi A, Posada-Villa J, Scott K, Torres Y, Zarkov Z, Nierenberg A, Kessler RC, de Jonge P (2021) Perceived helpfulness of treatment for specific phobia: findings from the World Mental Health Surveys. J Affect Disord 288:199–209.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  35. Alang S, McAlpine D (2020) Treatment modalities and perceived effectiveness of treatment among adults with depression. Health Serv Insights.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  36. Beesdo K, Bittner A, Pine DS, Stein MB, Höfler M, Lieb R, Wittchen HU (2007) Incidence of social anxiety disorder and the consistent risk for secondary depression in the first three decades of life. Arch Gen Psychiatry 64(8):903–912.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  37. Simon GE, VonKorff M (1995) Recall of psychiatric history in cross-sectional surveys: implications for epidemiologic research. Epidemiol Rev 17(1):221–227.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  38. Pickles A, Pickering K, Simonoff E, Silberg J, Meyer J, Maes H (1998) Genetic “clocks” and “soft” events: a twin model for pubertal development and other recalled sequences of developmental milestones, transitions, or ages at onset. Behav Genet 28(4):243–253.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  39. Maj M (2020) Helpful treatment of depression-delivering the right messages. JAMA Psychiat 77(8):784–786.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references


The World Health Organization World Mental Health (WMH) Survey Initiative is supported by the United States National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH; R01 MH070884), the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, the Pfizer Foundation, the United States Public Health Service (R13-MH066849, R01-MH069864, and R01 DA016558), the Fogarty International Center (FIRCA R03-TW006481), the Pan American Health Organization, Eli Lilly and Company, Ortho-McNeil Pharmaceutical Inc., GlaxoSmithKline, and Bristol-Myers Squibb. We thank the staff of the WMH Data Collection and Data Analysis Coordination Centres for assistance with instrumentation, fieldwork, and consultation on data analysis. None of the funders had any role in the design, analysis, interpretation of results, or preparation of this paper. The views and opinions expressed in this report are those of the authors and should not be construed to represent the views of the World Health Organization, other sponsoring organizations, agencies, or governments.

The WHO World Mental Health Survey collaborators are Sergio Aguilar-Gaxiola, Ali Al-Hamzawi, Mohammed Salih Al-Kaisy, Yasmine A Altwaijri, Jordi Alonso, Laura Helena Andrade, Lukoye Atwoli, Corina Benjet, Guilherme Borges, Evelyn J. Bromet, Ronny Bruffaerts, Brendan Bunting, Jose Miguel Caldas-de-Almeida, Graça Cardoso, Somnath Chatterji, Alfredo H. Cia, Louisa Degenhardt, Koen Demyttenaere, Silvia Florescu, Giovanni de Girolamo, Oye Gureje, Josep Maria Haro, Meredith G. Harris, Hristo Hinkov, Chi-yi Hu, Peter de Jonge, Aimee Nasser Karam, Elie G. Karam, Norito Kawakami, Ronald C. Kessler, Andrzej Kiejna, Viviane Kovess-Masfety, Sing Lee, Jean-Pierre Lepine, John J McGrath, Maria Elena Medina-Mora, Zeina Mneimneh, Jacek Moskalewicz, Fernando Navarro-Mateu, Marina Piazza, Jose Posada-Villa, Kate M. Scott, Tim Slade, Juan Carlos Stagnaro, Dan J. Stein, Margreet ten Have, Yolanda Torres, Maria Carmen Viana, Daniel V. Vigo, Harvey Whiteford, David R. Williams, Bogdan Wojtyniak.

A complete list of all within-country and cross-national WMH publications can be found at


The Argentina survey—Estudio Argentino de Epidemiología en Salud Mental (EASM)—was supported by a grant from the Argentinian Ministry of Health (Ministerio de Salud de la Nación)—(Grant number 2002-17270/13-5). The 2007 Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing is funded by the Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing. The São Paulo Megacity Mental Health Survey is supported by the State of São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP) Thematic Project Grant 03/00204-3. The Bulgarian Epidemiological Study of common mental disorders EPIBUL is supported by the Ministry of Health and the National Center for Public Health Protection. EPIBUL 2, conducted in 2016-17, is supported by the Ministry of Health and European Economic Area Grants. The Colombian National Study of Mental Health (NSMH) is supported by the Ministry of Social Protection. The Mental Health Study Medellín—Colombia was carried out and supported jointly by the Center for Excellence on Research in Mental Health (CES University) and the Secretary of Health of Medellín. The ESEMeD project is funded by the European Commission (Contracts QLG5-1999-01042; SANCO 2004123, and EAHC 20081308), (the Piedmont Region (Italy)), Fondo de Investigación Sanitaria, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Spain (FIS 00/0028), Ministerio de Ciencia y Tecnología, Spain (SAF 2000-158-CE), Generalitat de Catalunya (2017 SGR 452; 2014 SGR 748), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (CIBER CB06/02/0046, RETICS RD06/0011 REM-TAP), and other local agencies and by an unrestricted educational grant from GlaxoSmithKline. Implementation of the Iraq Mental Health Survey (IMHS) and data entry were carried out by the staff of the Iraqi MOH and MOP with direct support from the Iraqi IMHS team with funding from both the Japanese and European Funds through United Nations Development Group Iraq Trust Fund (UNDG ITF). The World Mental Health Japan (WMHJ) Survey is supported by the Grant for Research on Psychiatric and Neurological Diseases and Mental Health (H13-SHOGAI-023, H14-TOKUBETSU-026, H16-KOKORO-013, H25-SEISHIN-IPPAN-006) from the Japan Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. The Lebanese Evaluation of the Burden of Ailments and Needs Of the Nation (L.E.B.A.N.O.N.) is supported by the Lebanese Ministry of Public Health, the WHO (Lebanon), National Institute of Health/Fogarty International Center (R03 TW006481-01), anonymous private donations to IDRAAC, Lebanon, and unrestricted grants from, Algorithm, AstraZeneca, Benta, Bella Pharma, Eli Lilly, Glaxo Smith Kline, Lundbeck, Novartis, OmniPharma, Pfizer, Phenicia, Servier, UPO. The Mexican National Comorbidity Survey (MNCS) is supported by The National Institute of Psychiatry Ramon de la Fuente (INPRFMDIES 4280) and by the National Council on Science and Technology (CONACyT-G30544-H), with supplemental support from the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO). Te Rau Hinengaro: The New Zealand Mental Health Survey (NZMHS) is supported by the New Zealand Ministry of Health, Alcohol Advisory Council, and the Health Research Council. The Northern Ireland Study of Mental Health was funded by the Health & Social Care Research & Development Division of the Public Health Agency. The Peruvian World Mental Health Study was funded by the National Institute of Health of the Ministry of Health of Peru. The Polish project Epidemiology of Mental Health and Access to Care—EZOP Project (PL 0256) was carried out by the Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology in Warsaw in consortium with Department of Psychiatry—Medical University in Wroclaw and National Institute of Public Health-National Institute of Hygiene in Warsaw and in partnership with Psykiatrist Institut Vinderen–Universitet, Oslo. The project was funded by the European Economic Area Financial Mechanism and the Norwegian Financial Mechanism. EZOP project was co-financed by the Polish Ministry of Health. The Portuguese Mental Health Study was carried out by the Department of Mental Health, Faculty of Medical Sciences, NOVA University of Lisbon, with collaboration of the Portuguese Catholic University, and was funded by Champalimaud Foundation, Gulbenkian Foundation, Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT) and Ministry of Health. The Romania WMH study projects “Policies in Mental Health Area” and “National Study regarding Mental Health and Services Use” were carried out by National School of Public Health & Health Services Management (former National Institute for Research & Development in Health), with technical support of Metro Media Transilvania, the National Institute of Statistics-National Centre for Training in Statistics, SC Cheyenne Services SRL, Statistics Netherlands and were funded by Ministry of Public Health (former Ministry of Health) with supplemental support of Eli Lilly Romania SRL. The Saudi National Mental Health Survey (SNMHS) is conducted by the King Salman Center for Disability Research. It is funded by Saudi Basic Industries Corporation (SABIC), King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST), Ministry of Health (Saudi Arabia), and King Saud University. Funding in-kind was provided by King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, and the Ministry of Economy and Planning, General Authority for Statistics. The Shenzhen Mental Health Survey is supported by the Shenzhen Bureau of Health and the Shenzhen Bureau of Science, Technology, and Information. The Psychiatric Enquiry to General Population in Southeast Spain—Murcia (PEGASUS-Murcia) Project has been financed by the Regional Health Authorities of Murcia (Servicio Murciano de Salud and Consejería de Sanidad y Política Social) and Fundación para la Formación e Investigación Sanitarias (FFIS) of Murcia. The US National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R) is supported by the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH; U01-MH60220) with supplemental support from the National Institute of Drug Abuse (NIDA), the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF; Grant 044708), and the John W. Alden Trust. Dr. Jordi Alonso reports grants from the EU Commission, ISCIII/FEDER, and Generalitat de Catalunya, during the conduct of the study. Dr. Laura Helena Andrade is supported by the Brazilian Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq Grant # 307933/2019-9). Dr. Corina Benjet reports grants from Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología, during the conduct of the study.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations




RCK had full access to all the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis. Concept and design: RB and RCK. Acquisition, analysis, and interpretation of data: all the authors. Drafting of the manuscript: RB, NAS, RCK, and AEK. Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: all the authors. Statistical analysis: WTC and NAS. Obtained funding: AA-H, JA, YAA, LA, GC, AHC, SF, OG, CH, ANK, FN-M, SO, KMS, YT, BW, and RCK. Administrative, technical, or material support: NAS. Supervision: NAS and RCK.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Ronald C. Kessler.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

In the past 3 years, Dr. Kessler was a consultant for Datastat, Inc., Holmusk, RallyPoint Networks, Inc., and Sage Therapeutics. He has stock options in Mirah, PYM, and Roga Sciences. Dr. Navarro-Mateu reports non-financial support from Otsuka, outside the submitted work.

Ethics approval

All the procedures performed in studies involving human participants were approved by local Institutional Review Boards. The study is performed in accordance with the ethical standards laid down in the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki and its later amendments.

Consent to participate

The interview schedule was developed in English and translated into other languages using a standardized WHO translation, team translation, and harmonization protocol. Interviews were administered face-to-face in respondents’ homes after obtaining informed consent using procedures approved by local Institutional Review Boards.



See Tables

Table 5 WMH sample characteristics by World Bank income categoriesa

5 and

Table 6 Interaction between main effects and historical time to predictor of helpful treatment and persistence (pooled across professionals seen), and perceived helpfulness of treatment (person level), among people with lifetime DSM-IV social anxiety disorder (SAD) who obtained treatment


Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Bruffaerts, R., Harris, M.G., Kazdin, A.E. et al. Perceived helpfulness of treatment for social anxiety disorder: findings from the WHO World Mental Health Surveys. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 57, 2079–2095 (2022).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: