Not all screen time is created equal: associations with mental health vary by activity and gender



Previous research on associations between screen media use and mental health produced mixed findings, possibly because studies have not examined screen activities separately or accounted for gender differences. We sought to examine associations between different types of screen activities (social media, internet, gaming, and TV) and mental health indicators separately for boys and girls.


We drew from a nationally representative sample of 13–15-year-old adolescents in the UK (n = 11,427) asking about hours per day spent on specific screen media activities and four mental health indicators: self-harm behavior, depressive symptoms, life satisfaction, and self-esteem.


Hours spent on social media and Internet use were more strongly associated with self-harm behaviors, depressive symptoms, low life satisfaction, and low self-esteem than hours spent on electronic gaming and TV watching. Girls generally demonstrated stronger associations between screen media time and mental health indicators than boys (e.g., heavy Internet users were 166% more likely to have clinically relevant levels of depressive symptoms than low users among girls, compared to 75% more likely among boys).


Thus, not all screen time is created equal; social media and Internet use among adolescent girls are the most strongly associated with compromised mental health. Future research should examine different screen media activities and boys and girls separately where possible. Practitioners should be aware that some types of screen time are more likely to be linked to mental health issues than others.

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Correspondence to Jean M. Twenge.

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Conflicts of interest

J.M.T. has received speaking honoraria and consulting fees for presenting research and is the author of several books, most recently iGen: Why Today’s Super-Connected Kids Are Growing Up Less Rebellious, More Tolerant, Less Happy—and Completely Unprepared for Adulthood. E. F. declares no conflicts of interest.

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Twenge, J.M., Farley, E. Not all screen time is created equal: associations with mental health vary by activity and gender. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol (2020).

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  • Digital media
  • Screen media
  • Mental health
  • Self-harm
  • Depressive symptoms