The pervasive effect of youth self-report of hunger on depression over 6 years of follow up
We used longitudinal data to clarify the association between self-report of hunger and subsequent depression risk among youth and young adults, accounting for other risk factors.
Youth self-report of ever experiencing hunger data were collected from cycles 4–6 of the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth cohort of Canadian youth 16 years and older (n = 4139). Data on depressive symptoms (CES-D 12) were collected over three cycles (2004–2009, cycles 6–8). We used multivariable regression based on generalized estimating equations (GEE) to examine prior youth hunger on later depression risk, adjusting for time-stable, time-varying, and lagged variables (e.g., depressive symptoms in previous cycle), thereby clarifying the temporal relationship.
The prevalence of youth hunger experience and depression risk reached 5.9 and 15.0%, respectively. The adjusted odds ratio of depression for participants reporting hunger was 2.31 (95% CI 1.54, 3.46) and changed little [2.17 (95% CI 1.29, 3.67)] after accounting for previous CES-D 12 scores, suggesting a temporal relationship in which hunger contributes to depression risk. Unlike never-hungry youth, depression in ever-hungry youth remained comparatively elevated over time.
Our models support an independent and temporal relationship between youth self-report of hunger and depression in adolescence and young adulthood.
KeywordsHunger Depression Youth Longitudinal Generalized estimating equation (GEE)
- 1.Pearson C, Janz T, Ali J (2013) Mental and substance use disorders in Canada. Statistics Canada Catalogue No. 82-624-X. http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/82-624-x/2013001/article/11855-eng.htm. Accessed 2 December 2015
- 2.World Health Organization (WHO) (2016). Depression Fact Sheet. http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs369/en/. Accessed 29 June 2016.
- 5.Whiteford HA, Degenhardt L, Rehm J, Baxter AJ, Ferrari AJ, Erskine HE, Charlson FJ, Norman RE, Flaxman AD, Johns N Burstein R, Murray CJ, Vos T (2010) Global burden of disease attributable to mental and substance use disorders: findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study. Lancet 382(9904):1575–1586. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(13)61611-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 12.McLaughlin KA, Green JG, Gruber MJ, Sampson NA, Zaslavsky AM, Kessler RC (2012) Childhood adversities and first onset of psychiatric disorders in a national sample of US adolescents. Arch Gen Psychiatry 69(11):1151–1160. doi:10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2011.2277 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 14.Najman JM, Hayatbakhsh MR, Clavarino A, Bor W, O’Callaghan MJ, Williams GM (2010) Family poverty over the early life course and recurrent adolescent and young adult anxiety and depression: a longitudinal study. Am J Public Health 100(9):1719–1723. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2009.180943 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 17.Anderson SA (1990) Core indicators of nutritional state for difficult-to-sample populations. J Nutr 120(Suppl 11):1559–1600Google Scholar
- 18.Health Canada (2007) Income-related household food security in Canada. Catalogue No. H164-42/2007E. http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/fn-an/surveill/nutrition/commun/income_food_sec-sec_alim-eng.php. Accessed 2 December 2015
- 20.Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) (2008) An introduction to the basic concepts of food security. http://www.fao.org/docrep/013/al936e/al936e00.pdf. Accessed 2 December 2015
- 21.McIntyre L, Walsh G, Connor SK (2001) A follow-up study of child hunger in Canada. Applied Research Branch Strategy Policy Human Resources Development Canada. Catalogue No. MP32-28/01-1-2E. http://publications.gc.ca/site/archivee-archived.html?, http://publications.gc.ca/collections/Collection/MP32-28-01-1-2E.pdf. Accessed 2 December 2015
- 22.United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) (2015) Definitions of food security. http://www.ers.usda.gov/topics/food-nutrition-assistance/food-security-in-the-us/definitions-of-food-security.aspx. Accessed 2 December 2015
- 23.Wunderlich GS, Norwood JL (2006) Food insecurity and hunger in the United States: an assessment of the measure. The National Academies Press, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
- 38.Melchior M, Chastang JF, Falissard B, Galéra C, Tremblay RE, Côté SM, Boivin M (2012) Food insecurity and children’s mental health: a prospective birth cohort study. PLoS One 7(12):e52615. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0052615
- 41.Patten SB, Wildes TCR, Williams JVA, Lavorato DH, el-Guebaly N, Wild TC, Colman I, Bulloch AGM (2016) Childhood adversity and subsequent mental health status in adulthood: Screening for associations using two linked surveys. Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci 25(2):160–170 doi:10.1017/S2045796015000104 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 48.Statistics Canada (2010) National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth, Cycle 8 – User Guide. http://www23.statcan.gc.ca/imdb-bmdi/document/4450_D4_T9_V8-eng.pdf. Accessed 26 April 2016
- 49.Statistics Canada (2010) National longitudinal survey of children and youth (NLSCY). http://www23.statcan.gc.ca/imdb/p2SV.pl?Function=getSurvey&SDDS=4450. Accessed 2 December 2015
- 50.Statistics Canada (2015) Labour Force Survey. http://www.statcan.gc.ca/eng/survey/household/3701. Accessed 2 December 2015
- 51.Statistics Canada (2010). National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth Survey (NLSCY). http://www23.statcan.gc.ca:81/imdb/p2SV.pl?Function=getSurvey&SDDS=4450&lang=en&db=imdb&adm=8&dis=2#a1. Accessed 27 April 2016
- 62.Diggle PJ, Heagerty P, Liang K, Zeger SL (2002) Analysis of Longitudinal Data. 2nd edition. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
- 63.Odueyungbo A, Browne D, Akhtar-Danesh N, Thabane L (2008) Comparison of generalized estimating equations and quadratic inference functions using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (NLSCY) database. BMC Med Res Methodol 8:28. doi:10.1186/1471-2288-8-28 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 68.Bickel G, Nord M, Price C, Hamilton W, Cook J (2000) Guide to measuring household food insecurity. United States Department of Agriculture. Washington, D.C. http://www.fns.usda.gov/sites/default/files/FSGuide.pdf. Accessed 26 April 2016
- 71.Gonzalez A, Boyle MH, Kyu HH, Georgiades K, Duncan L, MacMillan HL (2012) Childhood and family influences on depression, chronic physical conditions, and their comorbidity: Findings from the Ontario Child Health Study. J Psychiatr Res 46:1475–1482. doi:10.1016/j.jpsychires.2012.08.004 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 79.Evans GW, Kim P (2013) Childhood poverty, chronic stress, self-regulation, and coping. Child Dev Perspect 7(1):43–48. doi:10.1111/cdep.12013
- 81.Government of Canada (2015) Child and family benefits. http://www.cra-arc.gc.ca/bnfts/menu-eng.html. Accessed 2 December 2015
- 82.Government of Canada (2016) Growing the Middle Class. Federal Budget 2016 http://www.budget.gc.ca/2016/docs/plan/budget2016-en.pdf. Accessed 26 April 2016