Family, friends, and 12-month PTSD among African Americans
- 522 Downloads
Despite a growing literature on the influence of social support on mental health, little is known about the relationship between social support and specific psychiatric disorders for African Americans, such as PTSD. This study investigated the relationship between social support, negative interaction with family and 12-month PTSD among African Americans.
Analyses were based on a nationally representative sample of African Americans from the National Survey of American Life (n = 3315). Social support variables included emotional support from family, frequency of contact with family and friends, subjective closeness with family and friends, and negative interactions with family.
Results indicated that emotional support from family is negatively associated with 12-month PTSD while negative interaction with family is predictive of 12-month PTSD. Additionally, a significant interaction indicated that high levels of subjective closeness to friends could offset the impact of negative family interactions on 12-month PTSD.
Overall, study results converged with previously established findings indicating that emotional support from family is associated with 12-month PTSD, while, negative interaction with family is associated with increased risk of 12-month PTSD. The findings are discussed in relation to prior research on the unique association between social support and mental health among African Americans.
KeywordsPTSD Family Friendships African Americans Informal social support
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.
- 3.Almeida DM, Horn MC (2004) Is daily life more stressful during middle adulthood? In: Brim OG, Ryff CD, Kessler RC (eds) How healthy are we? A national study of well-being at midlife. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp 425–451Google Scholar
- 7.Berkman LF, Glass T (2000) Social integration, social networks, social support, and health. Soc Epidemiol 1:137–173Google Scholar
- 19.Dohrenwend BP (2000) The role of adversity and stress in psychopathology: some evidence and its implications for theory and research. J Health Soc Behav 41(1)Google Scholar
- 22.Glynn SM, Asarnow JR, Asarnow R, Shetty V, Elliot-Brown K, Black E, Belin TR (2003) The development of acute post-traumatic stress disorder after orofacial injury: a prospective study in a large urban hospital. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 61(7):785–792. doi: 10.1016/s0278-2391(03)00239-8 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 26.House JS (1981) Work stress and social support. Addison-Wesley, ReadingGoogle Scholar
- 29.Kessler RC, Chiu WT, Demler O, Walters EE (2005) Prevalence, severity, and comorbidity of 12-month DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey replication. Arch Gen Psychiatry 62(6)Google Scholar
- 33.Krause N (2008) Aging in the church: how social relationships affect health. Templeton Press, West ConshohockenGoogle Scholar
- 34.Levine DS, Taylor RJ, Nguyen AW, Chatters LM, Himle JA (2016) Family and friendship informal support networks and social anxiety disorder among African Americans and Black Caribbeans. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr EpidemiolGoogle Scholar
- 36.Lincoln KD, Chae DH (2012) Emotional support, negative interaction and major depressive disorder among African Americans and Caribbean Blacks: findings from the National Survey of American Life. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 47(3):361–372. doi: 10.1007/s00127-011-0347-y CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 39.Lincoln KD, Taylor RJ, Bullard KM, Chatters LM, Woodward AT, Himle JA, Jackson JS (2010) Emotional support, negative interaction and DSM IV lifetime disorders among older African Americans: findings from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL). Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 25(6):612–621. doi: 10.1002/gps.2383 PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 40.Lincoln KD, Taylor RJ, Chae DH, Chatters LM (2010) Demographic correlates of psychological well-being and distress among older African Americans and Caribbean Black adults. Best Pract Mental Health 6(1):103–126Google Scholar
- 43.Neighbors HW, Caldwell C, Williams DR, Nesse R, Taylor RJ, Bullard KMK, Jackson JS (2007) Race, ethnicity, and the use of services for mental disorders: results from the National Survey of American Life. Arch Gen Psychiatry 64(4)Google Scholar
- 45.Nguyen AW, Chatters LM, Taylor RJ, Mouzon DM (2015) Social support from family and friends and subjective well-being of older African Americans. J Happiness StudGoogle Scholar
- 49.Roberts AL, Gilman SE, Breslau J, Breslau N, Koenen KC (2011) Race/ethnic differences in exposure to traumatic events, development of post-traumatic stress disorder, and treatment-seeking for post-traumatic stress disorder in the United States. Psychol Med 41(1):71–83. doi: 10.1017/S0033291710000401 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 54.Taylor RJ, Chae DH, Lincoln KD, Chatters LM (2015) Extended family and friendship support networks are both protective and risk factors for major depressive disorder and depressive symptoms among African–Americans and Black Caribbeans. J Nerv Ment Dis 203(2):132–140CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar