Development and evaluation of the INSPIRE measure of staff support for personal recovery

  • Julie Williams
  • Mary Leamy
  • Victoria Bird
  • Clair Le Boutillier
  • Sam Norton
  • Francesca Pesola
  • Mike Slade
Original Paper



No individualised standardised measure of staff support for mental health recovery exists.


To develop and evaluate a measure of staff support for recovery.


Development: initial draft of measure based on systematic review of recovery processes; consultation (n = 61); and piloting (n = 20). Psychometric evaluation: three rounds of data collection from mental health service users (n = 92).


INSPIRE has two sub-scales. The 20-item Support sub-scale has convergent validity (0.60) and adequate sensitivity to change. Exploratory factor analysis (variance 71.4–85.1 %, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin 0.65–0.78) and internal consistency (range 0.82–0.85) indicate each recovery domain is adequately assessed. The 7-item Relationship sub-scale has convergent validity 0.69, test–retest reliability 0.75, internal consistency 0.89, a one-factor solution (variance 70.5 %, KMO 0.84) and adequate sensitivity to change. A 5-item Brief INSPIRE was also evaluated.


INSPIRE and Brief INSPIRE demonstrate adequate psychometric properties, and can be recommended for research and clinical use.


Recovery Support Measurement Psychometrics 



We acknowledge the support of the PICuP Clinic at the Maudsley Hospital and the other mental health teams in recruiting participants. This article presents independent research funded by the NIHR under its Programme Grants for Applied Research Programme (Grant Reference Number RP-PG-0707-10040), and in relation to the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Biomedical Research Centre for Mental Health at South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust and Institute of Psychiatry, King’s College London. The views expressed in this publication are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the NHS, the NIHR or the Department of Health.

Conflict of interest

On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Julie Williams
    • 1
  • Mary Leamy
    • 1
  • Victoria Bird
    • 1
  • Clair Le Boutillier
    • 1
  • Sam Norton
    • 2
  • Francesca Pesola
    • 1
  • Mike Slade
    • 1
  1. 1.Health Service and Population Research Department (Box P029), Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and NeuroscienceKing’s College LondonLondonUK
  2. 2.Psychology Department, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and NeuroscienceKing’s College LondonLondonUK

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