Social capital and reported discrimination among people with depression in 15 European countries
- 471 Downloads
Social capital is a protective factor for mental health. People with depression are vulnerable to discrimination and its damaging impact. No previous studies have explored the link between social capital and experienced or anticipated discrimination in people with depression. This study aims to test the hypothesis that levels of self-reported discrimination in people with depression are inversely associated with social capital levels.
A total of 434 people with major depression recruited in outpatient settings across 15 European countries participated in the study. Multivariable regression was used to analyse relationships between discrimination and interpersonal and institutional trust, social support and social network.
Significant inverse association was found between discrimination and social capital in people with major depression. Specifically, people with higher levels of social capital were less likely to have elevated or substantially elevated levels of experienced discrimination.
Higher level of social capital may be closely associated with lower level of experienced discrimination among patients with major depression. It is important to explore these associations more deeply and to establish possible directions of causality in order to identify interventions that may promote social capital and reduce discrimination. This may permit greater integration in society and more access to important life opportunities for people with depression.
KeywordsDepression Social capital Discrimination Social support Multisite study
Funding for this study was provided by the European Union in the framework of the Public Health Programme.
Conflict of interest
All authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
- 3.Field J (2003) Social capital. Routledge, LondonGoogle Scholar
- 4.Putnam RD (1996) The strange disappearance of civic America. Am Prospect 7:1–18Google Scholar
- 11.Bourdieu P (1986) The forms of social capital. In: Richardson J (ed) Handbook of theory and research for the sociology of education. Greenwood, New York, pp 241–248Google Scholar
- 12.Coleman JS (1990) Foundations of social theory. Harvard University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
- 19.Oksanen T (2010) Workplace social capital and employee health. Dissertation Turku: Turun yliopisto. 2009. https://oa.doria.fi/handle/10024/47617 Accessed 5 Jan 2010
- 21.Dumont KA (2002) Links between three types of neighbourhood conditions and psychological distress among poor, African-American and Latino women in New York City. Department of Psychiatry, New Jersey Medical School, NewarkGoogle Scholar
- 28.Webber M (2005) Social capital and mental health. In: Tew J (ed) Social perspectives in mental health. Developing social models to understand and work with mental. Jessica Kingsley Publishers, London, pp 90–111Google Scholar
- 30.Alonso J, Buron A, Bruffaerts R, He Y, Posada-Villa J, Lepine JP, Angermeyer MC, Levinson D, De Girolamo G, Tachimori H, Mneimneh ZN, Medina-Mora ME, Ormel J, Scott KM, Gureje O, Haro JM, Gluzman S, Lee S, Vilagut G, Kessler RC, Von Korff M, World Mental Health Consortium (2008) Association of perceived stigma and mood and anxiety disorders: results from the World Mental Health Surveys. Acta Psychiatr Scand 118:305–314PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 33.Lasalvia A, Zoppei S, Van Bortel T, Bonetto C, Cristofalo D, Wahlbeck K, Vasseur Bacle S, Van Audenhove C, Van Weeghel J, Reneses B, Germanavicius A, Economou M, Lanfredi M, Ando S, Sartorius N, Lopez-Ibor JJ, Thornicroft G, the ASPEN/INDIGO Study Group (2013) Global pattern of experienced and anticipated discrimination reported by people with major depressive disorder: a cross-sectional survey. Lancet 381:55–62PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 37.Thornicroft G (2006) Shunned: discrimination against people with mental illness. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
- 39.European Social Survey ESS (2010) Round 5 source showcards. Centre for Comparative Social Surveys, City University London, LondonGoogle Scholar
- 41.Von Dem Knesebeck O, Dragano N, Siegrist J (2005) Social capital and self-rated health in 21 European countries. Psychosoc Med 2:1614–2934Google Scholar
- 43.Meltzer H (2003) Development of a common instrument for mental health. In: Nosikov A, Gudex C (eds) Eurohis: developing common instruments for health surveys. IOS Press, Amsterdam, pp 35–60Google Scholar
- 46.Kawachi I, Berkman L (2000) Social cohesion, social capital, and health. In: Berkman LF, Kawachi I (eds) Social epidemiology. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 174–190Google Scholar
- 47.Goffman E (1963) Stigma: notes on the management of spoiled identity. Penguin Books, Harmondsworth, MiddlesexGoogle Scholar
- 54.Newton K, Norris P (2000) Confidence in public institutions: faith, culture, or performance. In: Pharr SJ, Putnam RD (eds) Disaffected democracies: what’s troubling the trilateral countries?. Princeton University Press, Princeton, pp 52–73Google Scholar