To assess the associations of the perceived quality of parental bonding with suicidality in a sample of pregnant adolescents.
A cross-sectional study with a sample size of 828 pregnant teenagers receiving prenatal medical assistance in the national public health system in the urban area of Pelotas, southern Brazil. Suicidality and psychiatric disorders were assessed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), and the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) was employed to measure the perceived quality of parental bonding. A self-report questionnaire was used to collect sociodemographic, obstetric and other psychosocial data.
Forty-three (4.94 %) teenagers from a consecutive sample of 871 refused to participate, resulting in 828 participants. Prevalence of suicidality was 13.3 %, lifetime suicide attempts were 7.4 % with 1.3 % reporting attempting suicide within the last month. Significant associations of suicidality with the 18–19-year-old subgroup, low education, prior abortion, physical abuse within the last 12 months were present, and most psychiatric disorders were associated with a higher suicidality prevalence. Additionally, after adjustment in the multivariate analysis, the style of parental bonding was independently associated with suicidality in the pregnant adolescent, with a PR of 2.53 (95 % CI 1.14–5.59) for the maternal ‘affectionless control’ and a PR of 2.91 (95 % CI 1.10–7.70) for the paternal ‘neglectful parenting.’
We found that maternal ‘affectionless control’ and paternal ‘neglectful parenting’ were independent predictors of suicidality in this sample of pregnant teenagers.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Center for Diseases Control and Prevention (CDC) (2011) Vital signs: teen pregnancy—United States, 1991–2009. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 60(13):414–420
Chalem E, Mitsuhiro SS, Ferri CP, Barros MC, Guinsburg R, Laranjeira R (2007) Teenage pregnancy: behavioral and socio-demographic profile of an urban Brazilian population. Cad Saude Publica 23:177–186
Chen XK, Wen SW, Fleming N et al (2007) Teenage pregnancy and adverse birth outcomes: a large population based retrospective cohort study. Int J Epidemiol 36(2):368–373
Gilbert W, Jandial D, Field N, Bigelow P, Danielsen B (2004) Birth outcomes in teenage pregnancies. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 16:265–270
Bradley T, Cupples ME, Irvine H (2002) A case control study of a deprivation triagle: teenage motherhood, poor educational achievement and unemployment. Int J Adolesc Med Health 12:117–123
Mitsuhiro SS, Chalem E, Barros MM, Guinsburg R, Laranjeira R (2006) Teenage pregnancy: use of drugs in the third trimester and prevalence of psychiatric disorders. Rev Bras Psiquiatr 28(2):122–125
Olausson PO, Haglund B, Weitoft GR, Cnattingius S (2001) Teenage childbearing and long-term socio-economic consequences: a case study in Sweden. Fam Plann Perspect 33:70–74
Olausson PO, Haglund B, Weitoft GR, Cnattingius S (2004) Premature death among teenage mothers. BJOG 111:793–799
Freitas GVS, Cais CFS, Stefanello S et al (2008) Psychosocial conditions and suicidal behavior in pregnant teenagers: a case–control study in Brazil. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 17:336–342
Asad N, Karmaliani R, Sullaiman N, Bann CM, McClure EM, Pasha O, Wright LL, Goldenberg RL (2010) Prevalence of suicidal thoughts and attempts among pregnant Pakistani women. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 89:1545–1551
Bayatpour M, Wells RD, Holford S (1992) Physical and sexual abuse as predictors of substance use and suicide among pregnant teenagers. J Adolesc Health 13:128–132
Freitas GVS, Botega NJ (2002) Prevalence of depression, anxiety and suicidal ideation in pregnant adolescents. Rev Assoc Med Bras 48(3):245–249
Gausia K, Fisher C, Ali M, Oosthuizen J (2009) Antenatal depression and suicidal ideation among rural Bangladeshi women: a community-based study. Arch Womens Ment Health 12(5):351–358
Gavin AR, Tabb KM, Melville JL, Guo Y, Katon W (2011) Prevalence and correlates of suicidal ideation during pregnancy. Arch Womens Ment Health 14(3):239–246
Gentile S (2011) Suicidal mothers. J Inj Violence Res 3:90–97
Mota NP, Burnett M, Sareen J (2010) Associations between abortion, mental disorders, and suicidal behavior in nationally representative sample. Can J Psychiatry 55:239–247
Newport DJ, Levey LC, Pennell PB, Ragan K, Stowe ZN (2007) Suicidal ideation in pregnancy: assessment and clinical implications. Arch Womens Ment Health 10(5):181–187
Murphy E, Wickramaratne P, Weissman M (2010) The stability of parental bonding reports: a 20-year follow-up. J Affect Disord 125(1–3):307–315
Patton GC, Coffey C, Posterino M, Carlin JB, Wolfe R (2001) Parental ‘affectionless control’ in adolescent depressive disorder. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 36(10):475–480
Heider D, Matschinger H, Bernert S et al (2008) Adverse parenting as a risk factor in the occurrence of anxiety disorders : a study in six European countries. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 43(4):266–272
Kovess-Masfety V, Boyd A, Haro JM et al (2011) High and low suicidality in Europe: a fine-grained comparison of France and Spain within the ESEMeD surveys. J Affect Disord 133(1–2):247–256
Overbeek G, ten Have M, Vollebergh W, de Graaf R (2007) Parental lack of care and overprotection. Longitudinal associations with DSM-III-R disorders. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 42(2):87–93
Enns MW, Cox BJ, Clara I (2002) Parental bonding and adult psychopathology: results from the US National Comorbidity Survey. Psychol Med 32(6):997–1008
Behringer J, Reiner I, Spangler G (2011) Maternal representations of past and current attachment relationships, and emotional experience across the transition to motherhood: a longitudinal study. J Fam Psychol 25(2):210–219
Amorim P (2000) Mini Internacional Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI): validação de entrevista breve para diagnóstico de transtornos mentais. Rev Bras Psiquiatr 22:106–115
Hauck S, Schestatsky S, Terra L et al (2006) Adaptação transcultural para o português brasileiro do Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI). Rev Psiquiatr RS 28(2):162–168
Parker G (1984) The measurement of pathogenic parental style and its relevance to psychiatric disorder. Soc Psychiatry 19(2):75–81
Associação Brasileira de Empresas em Pesquisa (ABEP). [Critério de Classificação econômica no Brasil.] http://www.abep.org/codigosguias/ABEP_CCEB.pdf. Acessed in October 2009
Savoia MG (1999) Life events and coping scales. Rev Psiquiatr Clin 26(2):57–67
Griep RH, Chor D, Faerstein E et al (2005) Construct validity of the Medical Outcomes Study’s social support scale adapted to Portuguese in the Pró-Saúde Study. Cad Saude Publica 21(3):703–714
Reichenheim ME, Moraes CL, Hasselmann MH (2000) Equivalência semântica da versão em português do instrumento Abuse Assessment Screen para rastrear a violência contra a mulher grávida. Rev Saude Publica 34(6):610–616
Pinheiro RT, da Silva RA, Magalhães PV, Horta BL, Pinheiro KA (2008) Two studies on suicidality in the postpartum. Acta Psychiatr Scand 118(2):160–163
Hodgkinson SC, Colantuoni E, Roberts D, Berg-Cross L, Belcher HM (2010) Depressive symptoms and birth outcomes among pregnant teenagers. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol 23(1):16–22
Adam KS, Keller A, West M, Larose S, Goszer LB (1994) Parental representation in suicidal adolescents: a controlled study. Aust N Z J Psychiatry 28(3):418–425
Goldney RD (1985) Parental representation in young women who attempt suicide. Acta Psychiatr Scand 72:230–232
Martin G, Waite S (1994) Parental bonding and vulnerability to adolescent suicide. Acta Psychiatr Scand 89(4):246–254
Canetti L, Bachar E, Galili-Weisstub E, De-Nour AK, Shalev AY (1997) Parental bonding and mental health in adolescence. Adolescence 32(126):381–394
Heider D, Bernert S, Matschinger H, Haro JM, Alonso J, Angermeyer MC (2007) Parental bonding and suicidality in adulthood. Aust N Z J Psychiatry 41(1):66–73
Ferri CP, Mitsuhiro SS, Barros MCM et al (2007) The impact of maternal experience of violence and common mental disorders on neonatal outcomes: a survey of adolescent mothers in Sao Paulo, Brazil. BMC Public Health 7:209
Coleman PK (2011) Abortion and mental health: quantitative synthesis and analysis of research published 1995–2009. Br J Psychiatry 199:180–186
Cash SJ, Bridge JA (2009) Epidemiology of youth suicide and suicidal behavior. Curr Opin Pediatr 21:613–619
Sareen J, Cox BJ, Afifi TO et al (2005) Anxiety disorders and risk for suicidal ideation and suicide attempts: a population-based longitudinal study of adults. Arch Gen Psychiatry 62(11):1249–1257
Goldstein BI, Strober MA, Birmaher B et al (2008) Substance use disorders among adolescents with bipolar spectrum disorders. Bipolar Disord 10(4):469–478
About this article
Cite this article
Coelho, F.M.C., Pinheiro, R.T., Silva, R.A. et al. Parental bonding and suicidality in pregnant teenagers: a population-based study in southern Brazil. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 49, 1241–1248 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00127-014-0832-1
- Suicidal behavior
- Parental bonding
- Teenage pregnancy