Advertisement

Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology

, Volume 49, Issue 1, pp 97–107 | Cite as

Social relationships and quality of life moderate distress associated with delusional ideation

  • Michelle H. LimEmail author
  • John F. Gleeson
  • Henry J. Jackson
  • Katya C. Fernandez
Original Paper

Abstract

Purpose

In a previous study, individuals who followed a particular new religious movement (NRM) reported significantly less distress even though they reported similar levels of delusional ideation when compared with individuals diagnosed with psychotic disorders. Protective factors such as social relationship quality and quality of life (QOL) were hypothesized to explain attenuated distress associated with delusional ideation.

Methods

NRM individuals (n = 29), individuals diagnosed with psychotic disorders (n = 25), and control individuals (n = 63) were recruited. Psychotic symptoms, delusion-proneness, and facets of social relationships quality and QOL were examined across group. Potential moderators of the relationship between group membership and distress were further examined in multiple regression models.

Results

NRM participants reported more social relationships that were of higher quality (as demonstrated by more crisis supports, unique and overlap supports, more helpful supports and more reciprocated supports) than individuals with psychotic disorders. NRM participants also reported significantly higher QOL than individuals with psychotic disorders. Furthermore, NRM participants reported more distinct and less reciprocated supports, and significantly higher psychological, environmental, and total QOL, when compared with control participants. The relationship between group membership, delusional ideation, and distress was moderated by relationship reciprocity as well as by total QOL.

Conclusions

Findings highlight the importance of establishing healthy reciprocal social relationships and improving QOL in people diagnosed with psychotic disorders, as these factors may act as a buffer against distress associated with delusional beliefs.

Keywords

Psychosis Delusional ideation Distress Social relationships Quality of life 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We are grateful to the individuals who participated in this study.

Conflict of interest

On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.

Ethical standards

This study was approved by the University of Melbourne Human Research Ethics Committee, Melbourne Health and Eastern Health Human Research Ethics Committee.

References

  1. 1.
    van Os J, Hanssen M, Bijl RV, Ravelli A (2000) Strauss (1969) revisited: a psychosis continuum in the general population? Schizophr Res 45:11–20PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Tien AY (1991) Distribution of hallucinations in the population. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 26:287–292PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Scott J, Chant D, Andrews G, McGrath J (2006) Psychotic-like experiences in the general community: the correlates of CIDI psychosis screen items in an Australian sample. Psychol Med 36:231–238PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Freeman D, Garety PA, Bebbington PE, Smith B, Rollinson R, Fowler D, Kuipers E, Ray K, Dunn G (2005) Psychological investigation of the structure of paranoia in a non-clinical population. Br J Psychiatry 186:427–435PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Claridge G (1994) Single indicator of risk for schizophrenia—probable fact or likely myth? Schizophr Bull 20:151–168PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Barker E (1996) New religions and mental health. In: Bhugra D (ed) Psychiatry and religion: context, consensus and controversies. Routledge, London, New York, pp 125–138Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Peters E, Day S, McKenna J, Orbach G (1999) Delusional ideation in religious and psychotic populations. Br J Clin Psychol 38:83–96PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Peters ER, Joseph SA, Garety PA (1999) Measurement of delusional ideation in the normal population: introducing the PDI (Peters et al. delusions inventory). Schizophr Bull 25:553–576PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Lim M, Gleeson JF, Jackson HJ (2011) Selective attention to threat bias in delusion-prone individuals. J Nerv Ment Dis 199:765–772PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lim M, Gleeson JF, Jackson HJ (2012) The jumping-to-conclusions bias in new religious movements. J Nerv Ment Dis 200:868–875PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Weiss AS (1987) Psychological distress and well-being in Hare-Krishnas. Psychol Rep 61:23–35PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Latkin CA, Hagan RA, Littman RA, Sundberg N (1987) Who lives in utopia? A brief report on the Rajneeshpuram research project. Sociol Anal 48:73–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    O’Connor FW (1994) A vulnerability-stress framework for evaluating clinical interventions in schizophrenia. J Nurse Scholarsh 26:231–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Becker T, Leese M, Clarkson P, Taylor RE, Turner D, Kleckham J, Thornicroft G (1998) Links between social networks and quality of life: an epidemiologically representative study of psychotic patients in South London. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 33:299–304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hultman CM, Wieselgren I-M, Ohman A (1997) Relationships between social support, social coping and life events in the relapse of schizophrenic patients. Scand J Psychol 38:3–13PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Macdonald EM, Hayes RL, Baglioni AJ (2000) The quantity and quality of the social networks of young people with early psychosis compared with closely matched controls. Schizophr Res 30:25–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Narvaez JM, Twamley EW, McKibbin CL, Heaton RK, Patterson TL (2008) Subjective and objective quality of life in schizophrenia. Schizophr Res 98:201–208PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ritsner M (2003) Predicting changes in domain-specific quality of life of schizophrenia patients. J Nerv Ment Dis 191:287–294PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ritsner M, Gibel A, Ratner Y (2006) Determinants of changes in perceived quality of life in the course of schizophrenia. Qual Life Res 15:515–526PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Cohen AS, Davis TE (2011) Quality of life across the schizotypy spectrum: findings from a large nonclinical adult sample. Compr Psychiatry 50:408–414CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Lukoff D, Liberman RP, Nuechterlein KH (1986) Symptom monitoring in the rehabilitation of schizophrenic patients. Schizophr Bull 12:578–593PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    American Psychiatric Association (2000) Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 4 (text revised) edn. American Psychiatric Association, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Corporation Psychological (1999) Wechsler abbreviated scale of intelligence manual. Author, San AntonioGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    First MB, Spitzer RL, Gibbons M, Williams JBW (2007) Structured clinical interview for DSM-IV-TR axis I disorders—non patient edition (SCID-I/NP, 1/2007 revision). New York State Psychiatric Institute, Biometrics Research Department, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ventura J, Green MF, Shaner A, Liberman RP (1993) Training and quality assurance with the brief psychiatric rating scale—the drift busters. Int J Method 3:221–244Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Peters ER, Joseph SA, Day S, Garety PA (2004) Measuring delusional ideation: the 21-Item Peters et al. delusions inventory (PDI). Schizophr Bull 30:1005–1022PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Cella M, Sisti D, Rocchi MB, Preti A (2011) Delusional profiles among young adults: a latent class analysis of delusion proneness. Psychiatry Res 185:97–101PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Bentall RP (2004) Madness explained: psychosis and human nature. Penguin Books, LondonGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Eysenck SBG, Eysenck HJ, Barrett P (1985) A revised version of the Psychoticism scale. Pers Indiv Differ 6:21–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    McFarlane AH, Neale KA, Norman GR, Roy RG, Streiner DL (1981) Methodological issues in developing a scale to measure social support. Schizophr Bull 7:90–100PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Jackson HJ, Edwards J (1992) Social networks and social support in schizophrenia: correlates and assessment. In: Kavanagh DJ (ed) Schizophrenia: an overview and practical handbook. Chapman & Hall, London, pp 275–292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    World Health Organisation Quality of Life Group (1998) Development of the World Health Organisation WHOQOL-Bréf quality of life assessment. Psychol Med 28:551–558CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Field A (2009) Discovering statistics using SPSS: and sex and drugs and rock ‘n’ roll, 2nd edn. Sage Publications, LondonGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Aiken LS, West SG (1991) Multiple regressions: testing and interpreting interactions. Sage, Newbury ParkGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Neter J, Wasserman W, Kutner MH (1989) Applied regression models. Irwin, HomewoodGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Hayes AF (2012) Process: a versatile computational tool for observed variable mediation, moderation, and conditional process modeling (white paper). Retrieved from http://www.afhayes.com/public/process2012.pdf
  37. 37.
    Broome MR, Johns LC, Valli I, Woolley JB, Tabraham P, Brett C, Valmaggia L, Peters E, Garety PA, McGuire PK (2007) Delusion formation and reasoning biases in those at clinical high risk for psychosis. Br J Psychiatry 191:38–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michelle H. Lim
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • John F. Gleeson
    • 3
  • Henry J. Jackson
    • 2
  • Katya C. Fernandez
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyWashington University in St LouisSt. LouisUSA
  2. 2.Melbourne School of Psychological SciencesThe University of MelbourneMelbourneAustralia
  3. 3.School of PsychologyAustralian Catholic UniversityMelbourneAustralia

Personalised recommendations