Stigma and discrimination toward mental illness: translation and validation of the Italian version of the attribution questionnaire-27 (AQ-27-I)

  • Luca Pingani
  • Matilde Forghieri
  • Silvia Ferrari
  • Dror Ben-Zeev
  • Paolo Artoni
  • Fausto Mazzi
  • Gaspare Palmieri
  • Marco Rigatelli
  • Patrick W. Corrigan
Original Paper



The aim of this study was to translate the Attribution Questionnaire-27 (AQ-27) to the Italian language (AQ-27-I), and to examine the reliability and validity of this new Italian version.


The questionnaire was translated using the standard translation/back-translation method. Cronbach’s alpha and intraclass coefficients were used to estimate instrument reliability. Confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to corroborate the original English version factor structure in the new measure, and to establish validity. Path analyses were meant to validate relationships found in the English version among Italian-speaking participants.


The AQ-27-I demonstrated acceptable internal consistency, with a Cronbach’s alpha of 0.82 for the total scale and ranging between 0.52 and 0.91 for the subscales. The test–retest reliability was also satisfactory, with intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.72 for the total scale and ranging between 0.51 and 0.89 for the subscales. Fit indices of the model supported the factor structure and paths.


The AQ-27-I is a reliable measure to assess stigmatizing attitudes in Italian.


Psychometrics Reliability and validity Stereotyping Questionnaires Factor analysis 


Conflict of interest

All authors declare that there are no financing arrangements or payments that might be considered a conflict of interests related to the present paper.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Luca Pingani
    • 1
  • Matilde Forghieri
    • 2
  • Silvia Ferrari
    • 2
  • Dror Ben-Zeev
    • 3
    • 4
  • Paolo Artoni
    • 2
  • Fausto Mazzi
    • 2
  • Gaspare Palmieri
    • 5
  • Marco Rigatelli
    • 2
  • Patrick W. Corrigan
    • 6
  1. 1.Department of Psychiatry, International Doctorate School in Clinical and Experimental MedicineUniversity of Modena and Reggio EmiliaModenaItaly
  2. 2.Department of PsychiatryUniversity of Modena and Reggio EmiliaModenaItaly
  3. 3.Dartmouth Psychiatric Research Center, Dartmouth Medical SchoolLebanonUSA
  4. 4.Thresholds Research InstituteChicagoUSA
  5. 5.Villa Igea HospitalModenaItaly
  6. 6.Institute of Psychology, Illinois Institute of TechnologyChicagoUSA

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