Adolescent risk factors for excessive alcohol use at age 32 years. A 16-year prospective follow-up study
To examine which socioeconomic, family, personal and lifestyle risk factors in adolescence were the strongest independent predictors of excessive alcohol use in adulthood.
In a prospective longitudinal study, all 16-year-olds of one Finnish city completed questionnaires at school, and were followed up by postal questionnaires at 32 years of age [n = 1,471, (females n = 805, males n = 666); response rate 70.3%). The alcohol use disorders identification test (AUDIT) was used to assess alcohol use in adulthood. AUDIT scores of 8 or more for females and 10 or more for males were classified as excessive alcohol use. Adolescent risk factors examined were parental social class, school performance, depressive symptoms, self-esteem, impulsiveness, parental divorce, relationships with parents, parental trust, health behaviour, leisure-time spent with friends, dating, and problems with the law.
All the socioeconomic, family, personal, and lifestyle variables in adolescence, except parental social class in both genders and self-esteem among females, showed significant univariate associations with excessive alcohol use at age 32 years. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that among adolescent males, parental divorce, moderate and high level of depressive symptoms, leisure-time spent daily among friends and moderate and drunkenness-orientated drinking were the strongest predictors of excessive alcohol use in adulthood. Among females, the strongest adolescent predictors of excessive alcohol use in adulthood were drunkenness-orientated drinking and frequent smoking.
Early interventions for adolescent substance use and a set of specific psychosocial risk factors should be tailored and evaluated as methods for identifying those at high risk of and preventing excessive alcohol use in adulthood.
KeywordsExcessive alcohol use Risk factors Adolescence Adulthood Longitudinal studies
- 3.Babor TF, Higgins-Biddle JC, Sauders JB, Monteiro MG (2001) AUDIT the alcohol use disorders identification test. Guidelines for use in primary care, 2nd edn. WHO, Department of Mental Health and Substance Dependence, GenevaGoogle Scholar
- 5.Biddle L, Gunnell D, Sharp D, Donovan JL (2004) Factors influencing help seeking in mentally distress young adults: a cross-sectional survey. Br J Gen Pract 53:248–253Google Scholar
- 6.Central Statistical Office of Finland (1975) Classification of occupations. Central Statistical Office of Finland, HelsinkiGoogle Scholar
- 26.Jessor R, Donovan JE, Costa FB (1991) Beyond adolescence: problem behavior and young adult development. Cambridge University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- 27.Kandel DB, Johnson JG, Bird HR, Canino G, Goodman SH, Lahey BB, Regier DA, Schwab-Stone M (1997) Psychiatric disorders associated with substance use among children and adolescents: findings from the methods for the epidemiology of child and adolescent mental disorders (MECA) study. J Abnorm Child Psychol 25:121–132CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 29.Kuokkanen M, Teirilä J (2001) Alkoholin suurkuluttajien mini-interventio työterveysasemalla. Kokeilu S-työterveyspalveluissa Helsingissä. Suom Lääkäril 56:3489–3493Google Scholar
- 40.Mäkelä P, Gmel G, Grittner U, Kuendig H, Kuntsche S, Bloomfield K, Room R (2006) Drinking patterns and their gender differences in Europe. Alcohol Alcohol 41(1 Suppl):8–18Google Scholar
- 45.Pape H, Hammer T (1996) How does young people’s alcohol consumption change during the transition to early adulthood? A longitudinal study of changes at aggregate and individual level. Addiction 9:1345–1358Google Scholar
- 50.Rauste-von Wright M (1975) The image of man among Finnish girls and boys. Report No. 41. University of Turku, Department of Psychology, TurkuGoogle Scholar
- 53.Rose RJ, Kaprio J, Winter T, Koskenvuo M, Viken RJ (1999) Familial and socioregional environmental effects on abstinence from alcohol at age sixteen. J Stud Alcohol 13(Suppl):63–74Google Scholar
- 54.Rosenberg M (1965) Society and the adolescent self-image. Princeton University Press, PrincetonGoogle Scholar
- 57.Schulenberg JE, Maggs JL (2002) A developmental perspective on alcohol use and heavy drinking during adolescence and the transition to young adulthood. J Stud Alcohol 14(Suppl):54–70Google Scholar
- 60.Statistics Finland (2006) Cause of death Statistics. Statistics Finland, HelsinkiGoogle Scholar
- 61.Statistics Finland. Labour force survey. http://tilastokeskus.fi/til/tyti. Accessed 10 March 2009
- 62.Statistics Finland. Population structure. http://tilastokeskus.fi/til/vaerak. Accessed 10 March 2009
- 64.Vuorilehto M, Isometsä E, Ihalainen R, Korhonen A (2003) Terveyskeskuspotilaiden masennus, ahdistuneisuus ja alkoholin riskikäyttö [Mental symptoms among unselected users of primary health care, in Finnish with English abstract]. Suom Lääkäril 58:905–908Google Scholar