Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology

, Volume 45, Issue 1, pp 125–134 | Cite as

Adolescent risk factors for excessive alcohol use at age 32 years. A 16-year prospective follow-up study

  • Taina Huurre
  • Tomi Lintonen
  • Jaakko Kaprio
  • Mirjami Pelkonen
  • Mauri Marttunen
  • Hillevi Aro
Original Paper



To examine which socioeconomic, family, personal and lifestyle risk factors in adolescence were the strongest independent predictors of excessive alcohol use in adulthood.


In a prospective longitudinal study, all 16-year-olds of one Finnish city completed questionnaires at school, and were followed up by postal questionnaires at 32 years of age [n = 1,471, (females n = 805, males n = 666); response rate 70.3%). The alcohol use disorders identification test (AUDIT) was used to assess alcohol use in adulthood. AUDIT scores of 8 or more for females and 10 or more for males were classified as excessive alcohol use. Adolescent risk factors examined were parental social class, school performance, depressive symptoms, self-esteem, impulsiveness, parental divorce, relationships with parents, parental trust, health behaviour, leisure-time spent with friends, dating, and problems with the law.


All the socioeconomic, family, personal, and lifestyle variables in adolescence, except parental social class in both genders and self-esteem among females, showed significant univariate associations with excessive alcohol use at age 32 years. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that among adolescent males, parental divorce, moderate and high level of depressive symptoms, leisure-time spent daily among friends and moderate and drunkenness-orientated drinking were the strongest predictors of excessive alcohol use in adulthood. Among females, the strongest adolescent predictors of excessive alcohol use in adulthood were drunkenness-orientated drinking and frequent smoking.


Early interventions for adolescent substance use and a set of specific psychosocial risk factors should be tailored and evaluated as methods for identifying those at high risk of and preventing excessive alcohol use in adulthood.


Excessive alcohol use Risk factors Adolescence Adulthood Longitudinal studies 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Taina Huurre
    • 1
  • Tomi Lintonen
    • 2
    • 3
  • Jaakko Kaprio
    • 1
    • 4
  • Mirjami Pelkonen
    • 1
    • 2
  • Mauri Marttunen
    • 1
    • 5
  • Hillevi Aro
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse Services, Child and Adolescent Mental Health UnitNational Institute for Health and WelfareHelsinkiFinland
  2. 2.Tampere School of Public HealthUniversity of TampereTampereFinland
  3. 3.Police College of FinlandTampereFinland
  4. 4.Department of Public HealthUniversity of HelsinkiHelsinkiFinland
  5. 5.Department of Adolescent Psychiatry and Hospital for Children and AdolescentsUniversity of Helsinki and Helsinki University Central HospitalHelsinkiFinland

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