Social and lifestyle determinants of depression, anxiety, sleeping disorders and self-evaluated quality of life in Russia

A population-based study in Arkhangelsk



The paper investigates social and lifestyle determinants of depression, anxiety, sleeping disorders and self-evaluated low quality of life in a population sample from the northwest of Russia.


Altogether 1968 men and 1737 women aged 18–90 years participated in a population-based study in Arkhangelsk, Russia, in the period 1999–2000. Depression, anxiety, and sleeping disorders were evaluated by a questionnaire with the formulations that have been previously used in population studies in Northern Norway. Alcohol dependence was diagnosed by the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Quality of life was evaluated by a 10-score Cantril Ladder. A score lower than five was defined as low quality of life. Relations between depression, anxiety, and sleeping disorders and socioeconomic/lifestyle factors were tested by logistic regression analyses.


Women reported significantly higher prevalence of depression, anxiety and/or sleeping disorders than men: 68.7% and 32.3%, respectively. Depression, anxiety, sleeping disorders and low quality of life were positively associated with self-evaluation of nutrition as “poor”, low consumption of food, and with low-paid professional status. Depression and sleeping disorders were associated with smoking, hazardous level of alcohol drinking and alcohol dependence. Anxiety and low quality of life were associated with alcohol dependence. Depression, anxiety, sleeping disorders and low quality of life had a strong positive association with circulatory diseases and gastrointestinal diseases, the association remained significant after adjustment for smoking and alcohol variables.


A considerable part of the examined Russian population experienced depression, anxiety, and sleeping disorders that were strongly positively associated with poor nutrition, low socioeconomic status and adverse health behaviors (alcohol use disorders, smoking).

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This research was supported by the Norwegian Research Council. The authors thank colleagues from the Semashko Clinic in Arkhangelsk, Russia for their assistance.

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Correspondence to Maria Averina.

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Averina, M., Nilssen, O., Brenn, T. et al. Social and lifestyle determinants of depression, anxiety, sleeping disorders and self-evaluated quality of life in Russia . Soc Psychiat Epidemiol 40, 511–518 (2005).

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  • depression
  • anxiety
  • sleeping disorders
  • quality of life – Russia