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Fluid evolution and ore genesis of the Dalingshang deposit, Dahutang W-Cu ore field, northern Jiangxi Province, South China

  • Ning-Jun Peng
  • Shao-Yong Jiang
  • Suo-Fei Xiong
  • Dao-Hui Pi
Article

Abstract

The Dalingshang W-Cu deposit is located in the North section of the Dahutang ore field, northern Jiangxi Province, South China. Vein- and breccia-style tungsten-copper mineralization is genetically associated with Mesozoic S-type granitic rocks. Infrared and conventional microthermometric studies of both gangue and ore minerals show that the homogenization temperatures for primary fluid inclusions in wolframite (~ 340 °C) are similar to those in scheelite (~ 330 °C), but about 40 °C higher than those of apatite (~ 300 °C) and generally 70 °C higher than those in coexisting quartz (~ 270 °C). Laser Raman analysis identifies CH4 and N2 without CO2 in fluid inclusions in scheelite and coexisting quartz, while fluid inclusions in quartz of the sulfide stage have variable CO2 content. The ore-forming fluids overall are characterized by high- to medium-temperature, low-salinity, CH4, N2, and/or CO2-bearing aqueous fluids. Chalcopyrite, muscovite, and sphalerite are the most abundant solids recognized in fluid inclusions from different ores. The H-O-S-Pb isotope compositions favor a dominantly magmatic origin for ores and fluids, while some depleted δ34S values (− 14.4 to − 0.9‰) of sulfides from the sulfide stage are most likely produced by an increase of oxygen fugacity, possibly caused by inflow of oxidized meteoric waters. The microthermometric data also indicate that a simple cooling process formed early scheelite and wolframite. However, increasing involvement of meteoric waters and fluid mixing may trigger a successive deposition of base metal sulfides. Fluid-rock interaction was critical for scheelite mineralization as indicated by in-situ LA-ICP-MS analysis of trace elements in scheelite.

Keywords

Fluid inclusion Infrared microscopy Scheelite The Dalingshang W-Cu deposit South China 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We gratefully acknowledge Prof. Bernd Lehmann and two anonymous reviews for their constructive comments that significantly improved the manuscript. We also give special thanks to managements and staffs of the Northwest Jiangxi Geological Team and the 916 Geological Team for their helpful assistance during field work. Sincere thanks are also due to Xo-Bo Zhang, Mou-Chun He, Da Yang, Yao-Ming Xu, and Sheng-Ke Yang for their guidance and advice on experimental work. This work was financially supported by the National Key R&D Program of China (No. 2017YFC0601404), the National Science Foundation of China (No. 41473042), and the MOST Special Fund from the State Key Laboratory of Geological Processes and Mineral Resources (MSFGPMR03-2).

Supplementary material

126_2018_796_MOESM1_ESM.xls (192 kb)
ESM Table 1 Experimental data on fluid inclusion microthermometry (XLS 192 kb)
126_2018_796_MOESM2_ESM.docx (40 kb)
ESM Table 2 Hydrogen and oxygen isotope data for hydrothermal and igneous minerals from the Dalingshang deposit (DOCX 40 kb)
126_2018_796_MOESM3_ESM.docx (46 kb)
ESM Table 3 Sulfur isotope data for sulfide minerals from the Dalingshang deposit (DOCX 46 kb)
126_2018_796_MOESM4_ESM.docx (43 kb)
ESM Table 4 Lead isotope data for sulfide minerals and granitic feldspars from the Dalingshang deposit (DOCX 43 kb)
126_2018_796_MOESM5_ESM.xls (74 kb)
ESM Table 5 In-situ LA-ICP-MS analyses of scheelite trace elements at Dalingshang (XLS 74 kb)
126_2018_796_MOESM6_ESM.jpg (227 kb)
ESM Fig. 1 Photographs showing composition of the typical ores in the Dalingshang deposit: silicate-oxide stage (a-d), sulfide stage (e), and hydrothermal breccia (f). a. Quartz vein consists of wolframite, scheelite, and quartz. Note scheelite show bluish fluorescence under fluorescent lamp; b. Coexisting wolframite, scheelite, apatite, and quartz in quartz vein. Note scheelite in vein wall show bluish fluorescence and apatite in vein center show yellowish fluorescence under fluorescent lamp; c. Veinlet contains wolframite, scheelite, and quartz. Note greisenization alteration dominated by sericite and quartz is well developed on the sides of veinlet; d. Veinlet hosted in Neoproterozoic granodiorite, containing coexisting scheelite and quartz; e. Quartz vein of the sulfide stage, containing appreciable chalcopyrite; f. Hydrothermal breccia, consisting of brecciated granodiorite, quartz cements, and disseminated ores. (The diameter of the coin is 2 cm; Abbreviations: Wol wolframite, Sch scheelite, Ap apatite, Ccp chalcopyrite, Qz quartz, Ser sercite, Mol molybdenite) (JPEG 227 kb)
126_2018_796_MOESM7_ESM.jpg (442 kb)
ESM Fig. 2 Back-scattered images (a-c), photomicrographs (d-f), and OM-CL images (g-i) showing mineralogy and textural features of greisen alteration as well as associated vein-type mineralization. a. Biotite was altered to muscovite in alteration zone, accompanied by the formation of ilmenite, fluorite, apatite, wolframite, and scheelite; b. Wolframite replaces early-precipitated fluorite and apatite in well-developed greisenization zone; c. Typical mineral assemblages in greisenization zone, consisting primarily of a mixture of quartz and muscovite, with some amounts of apatite and scheelite. Note that apatite was replaced by scheelite; d. Euhedral scheelite cut by chalcopyrite in greisenization zone; e. Apatite attached to the feldspar. Note that the feldspar was strongly altered to quartz and sericite; f. Apatite replaced by chalcocite and chalcopyrite in greisenization zone; g-i. g, h, and i are representive OM-CL images of scheelite granules hosted in greisenization zone (Type 1), scheelite hosted in veinlet from the endocontact zone (Type 2), and scheelite hosted in veinlet from the exocontact zone (Type 3), respectively, showing inhomogenous CL colors within single scheelite grains. (Abbreviations: Ilm ilmenite;, Bt biotite, Ms. muscovite, Gn galena, others as in Fig. 5 and ESM Fig. 1) (JPEG 441 kb)
126_2018_796_MOESM8_ESM.jpg (515 kb)
ESM Fig. 3 Photomicrographs of fluid inclusions in wolframite (a-c), scheelite (d-f), apatite (g-i), and quartz (j-l). a-c. Type Ia inclusions along the growth banding of wolframite; d. Coexisting type Ia and type II inclusions in scheelite; e. A group of type Ia inclusions in scheelite; f. A group of type Ia inclusions in scheelite; g. Coexisting type Ia and type II inclusions in apatite; h. Type Ia inclusions within the growth bands of apatite; i. Type Ia inclusions in apatite; j-l. A group of fluid inclusions in quartz from silicate-oxide stage (j), sulfide stage (k), and hydrothermal breccia (l) (JPEG 514 kb)
126_2018_796_MOESM9_ESM.jpg (6.7 mb)
ESM Fig. 4 Photomicrographs of melt inclusions (a-e) and fluid-melt inclusions (f-i) from ore-related two-mica granite. A. Glassy met inclusion contains a chalcopyrite crystal; b. Devitrified glassy melt inclusion; c. A large negative-shaped glassy melt inclusion; d-e. Crystallized met inclusions in in coexistence with fluid inclusions; f. Typical fluid-melt inclusion with fluid attached to the silicate glass; g. Fluid-melt inclusion contains a chalcopyrite crystal, with the glass altered by later hydrothermal process; h-i. Fluid-melt inclusion in coexistence with fluid inclusions (JPEG 6819 kb)
126_2018_796_MOESM10_ESM.jpg (1 mb)
ESM Fig. 5 Representative Raman spectra of volatiles (a-f) and solids (g-l) in inclusions from the Dalingshang deposit. a-d. Melt inclusion from granite and fluid inclusion from quartz vein of the silicate-oxide stage contain only volatiles of CH4 and N2; e-f. Vapor compositions of fluid inclusion from quartz vein of the sulfide stage and hydrothermal breccia, containing volatiles of CH4, N2, and trace content of CO2; g. Crystallized melt inclusion with albite as silicate daughter minerals; h. Fluid-melt inclusion contains monazite; i. Fluid-melt inclusion with opaque rutile as a daughter mineral; j. Muscovite was identified both in melt inclusion (left) from granite and fluid inclusion (right) from quartz vein; k. Type II inclusion in quartz vein contains a solid of chalcopyrite; l. Type II inclusion in quartz vein contains a solid of sphalerite. (JPEG 1040 kb)
126_2018_796_MOESM11_ESM.jpg (440 kb)
ESM Fig. 6 Chondrite-normalized REE patterns for single scheelite grains representative of scheelite types of 1, 2, 3, and 4 (a,b,c,d) at Dalingshang deposit, respectively. The red lines represent REEN patterns with negative Eu anomalies, corresponding to analyses in the crystal cores with white-blue CL. The bold blue lines refer to REEN patterns of Mesozoic two-mica granite (after Huang and Jiang 2014). Normalization values are after Sun and McDonough (1989) (JPEG 439 kb)
126_2018_796_MOESM12_ESM.jpg (196 kb)
ESM Fig. 7 Plots of (a) REE vs. Y, and (b) (Ho/Lu)N vs. (La/Sm)N in scheelites from the Dalingshang deposit. N- Chondrite-normalized (JPEG 195 kb)

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© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Geological Processes and Mineral Resources, Collaborative Innovation Center for Exploration of Strategic Mineral Resources and Faculty of Earth ResourcesChina University of GeosciencesWuhanChina

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