Mineralium Deposita

, Volume 52, Issue 8, pp 1205–1222 | Cite as

Formation of Si-Al-Mg-Ca-rich zoned magnetite in an end-Permian phreatomagmatic pipe in the Tunguska Basin, East Siberia

  • Else-Ragnhild NeumannEmail author
  • Henrik H. Svensen
  • Alexander G. Polozov
  • Øyvind Hammer


Magma-sediment interactions in the evaporite-rich Tunguska Basin resulted in the formation of numerous phreatomagmatic pipes during emplacement of the Siberian Traps. The pipes contain magnetite-apatite deposits with copper and celestine mineralization. We have performed a detailed petrographic and geochemical study of magnetite from long cores drilled through three pipe breccia structures near Bratsk, East Siberia. The magnetite samples are zoned and rich in Si (≤5.3 wt% SiO2), Ca, Al, and Mg. They exhibit four textural types: (1) massive ore in veins, (2) coating on breccia clasts, (3) replacement ore, and (4) reworked ore at the crater base. The textural types have different chemical characteristics. “Breccia coating” magnetite has relatively low Mg content relative to Si, as compared to the other groups, and appears to have formed at lower oxygen fugacity. Time series analyses of MgO variations in microprobe transects across Si-bearing magnetite in massive ore indicate that oscillatory zoning in the massive ore was controlled by an internal self-organized process. We suggest that hydrothermal Fe-rich brines were supplied from basalt-sediment interaction zones in the evaporite-rich sedimentary basin, leading to magnetite ore deposition in the pipes. Hydrothermal fluid composition appears to be controlled by proximity to dolerite fragments, temperature, and oxygen fugacity. Magnetite from the pipes has attributes of iron oxide-apatite deposits (e.g., textures, oscillatory zoning, association with apatite, and high Si content) but has higher Mg and Ca content and different mineral assemblages. These features are similar to magnetite found in skarn deposits. We conclude that the Siberian Traps-related pipe magnetite deposit gives insight into the metamorphic and hydrothermal effects following magma emplacement in a sedimentary basin.


Si-bearing magnetite Siberian Traps Phreatomagmatic pipe Evaporite Oscillatory zoning 



We gratefully acknowledge financial support from the Norwegian Research Council via SFF grants to PGP and CEED (grant number 223272) and a grant to H. Svensen (EPIC). We thank Kirsten E. Fristad and Sverre Planke for discussions and support during fieldwork in Siberia, Muriel Erambert for her assistance during EMP analyses, and Stephane Polteau and Clement Ganino for their work on-site when logging and sampling the S26 core. The manuscript has improved significantly through constructive criticism and suggestions from Charley Duran and an anonymous reviewer.

Supplementary material

126_2017_717_MOESM1_ESM.xlsx (139 kb)
ESM 1 (XLSX 139 kb)
126_2017_717_MOESM2_ESM.docx (39 kb)
ESM 2 (DOCX 38 kb)
126_2017_717_MOESM3_ESM.docx (15 kb)
ESM 3 (DOCX 15 kb)
126_2017_717_MOESM4_ESM.pdf (2.9 mb)
ESM 4 (PDF 2921 kb)


  1. Aarnes I, Svensen H, Connolly JAD, Podladchikov YY (2010) How contact metamorphism can trigger global climate changes; modeling gas generation around igneous sills in sedimentary basins. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 74:7179–7195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Antal T, Droz M, Magnin J, Racz Z, Zrinyi M (1998) Derivation of the Matalon-Packter law for Liesegang patterns. J Chem Phys 109:9479–9486CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Apukhtina OB, Kamenetsky VS, Ehrig K et al (2016) Postmagmatic magnetite-apatite assemblage in mafic intrusions: a case study of dolerite at Olympic Dam, South Australia. Contrib Mineral Petrol 171:2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barton MD (2014) 13.20 Iron oxide (–Cu–Au–REE–P–Ag–U–Co) systems. Geochemistry of mineral deposits. Treatise on geochemistry, Scott SD (ed) 13:515–541Google Scholar
  5. Black BA, Lamarque J-F, Shields CA, Elkins-Tanton LT, Kiehl JT (2014) Acid rain and ozone depletion from pulsed Siberian Traps magmatism. Geology 42:67–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Burgess SD, Bowring SA (2015) High-precision geochronology confirms voluminous magmatism before, during, and after Earth’s most severe extinction. Sci Advanc 1(7):e1500470CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Dare SA, Barnes S-J, Beaudoin G (2012) Variation in trace element content of magnetite crystallized from a fractionating sulfide liquid, Sudbury, Canada: implications for provenance discrimination. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 88:27–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Dare SA, Barnes S-J, Beaudoin G, Méric J, Boutroy E, Potvin-Doucet C (2014) Trace elements in magnetite as petrogenetic indicators. Mineral Deposita 49:785–796CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dare SA, Barnes S-J, Beaudoin G (2015) Did the massive magnetite “lava flows” of El Laco (Chile) form by magmatic or hydrothermal processes? New constraints from magnetite compositions by LA-ICP-MS. Mineral Deposita 50:607–617CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Dupuis C, Beaudoin G (2011) Discriminant diagrams for iron oxide trace element fingerprinting of mineral deposit types. Mineral Deposita 46:319–335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Ernst RE, Bleeker W, Svensen H, Planke S, Polozov AG (2009) Vent complexes above dolerite sills in Phanerozoic LIPs: implications for Proterozoic LIPs and IOCG deposits. Am Geol Union, Geol Ass Canada, Mineral Ass Canada Ann Meet, Toronto, Canada, 24–27 MayGoogle Scholar
  12. Fedorenko VA, Czamanske G (1997) Results of new field and geochemical studies of the volcanic and intrusive rocks of the Maymecha-Kotuy area, Siberian flood-basalt province, Russia. Internat Geol Rev 39:479–531CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Fraser DG, Feltham D, Whiteman M (1989) High-resolution scanning proton microprobe studies of micron-scale zoning in a secondary dolomite: implications for studies of redox behavior in dolomites. Sediment Geol 65:223–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Frietsch R, Perdahl JA (1995) Rare earth elements in apatite and magnetite in Kiruna-type iron ores and some other iron ore types. Ore Geol Rev 9:489–510CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Fristad KE, Pedentchouk N, Rosche M, Polozov A, Svensen H (2015) An integrated carbon isotope record of an end-Permian crater lake above a phreatomagmatic pipe of the Siberian Traps. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclim Palaeoecol 428:39–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Frolov SV, Akhmanov GG, Kozlova EV, Krylov OV, Sitar KA, Galushkin YI (2011) Riphean basins of the central and western Siberian Platform. Marine Petrol Geol 28:906–920CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hammer Ø, Harper DAT, Ryan PD (2001) PAST: paleontological statistics software package for education and data analysis. Palaeont Electron 4:1–9 9 ppGoogle Scholar
  18. Hu H, Lentz D, Li J-W, McCarron T, Zhao X-F, Hall D (2015) Reequilibration processes in magnetite from iron skarn deposits. Econ Geol 110:1–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Huberty JM, Konishi H, Heck PR, Fournelle JH, Valley JW, Xu H (2012) Silician magnetite from the Dales Gorge member of the Brockman iron formation, Hamersley Group, Western Australia. Am Mineral 97:26–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hunt JA, Baker T, Thorkelson DJ (2007) A review of iron oxide copper-gold deposits, with focus on the Wernecke Breccias, Yukon, Canada, as an example of a non-magmatic end member and implications for IOCG genesis and classification. Explor Mineral Geol 16:209–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Jamtveit B, Andersen T (1993) Contact metamorphism of layered shale-carbonate sequences in the Oslo Rift; III, the nature of skarn-forming fluids. Econ Geol 88:1830–1849CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Jerram DA, Svensen HH, Planke S, Polozov AG, Torsvik TH (2016) The onset of flood volcanism in the north-western part of the Siberian Traps: explosive volcanism versus effusive lava flows. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimat Palaeoecol 441:38–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Knipping JL, Bilenker LD, Simon AC, Reich M, Barra F, Deditius AP, Wӓlle M, Heinrich CA, Holtz F, Munizaga R (2015) Trace elements in magnetite from massive iron oxide-apatite deposits indicate a combined formation by igneous and magmatic-hydrothermal processes. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 171:15–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Koděra P, Rankin AH, Lexa J (1998) Evolution of fluids responsible for iron skarn mineralisation: an example from the Vyhne-Klokoč deposit, Western Carpathians, Slovakia. Mineral Petrol 64:119–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kontorovich AE, Khomenko AV, Burshtein LM et al (1997) Intense basic magmatism in the Tunguska petroleum basin, eastern Siberia, Russia. Petrol Geosci 3:359–369CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Mazurov MP, Grishina SN, Istomin VE, Titov AT (2007) Metasomatism and ore formation at contacts of dolerite with saliferous rocks in the sedimentary cover of the southern Siberian platform. Geol Ore Deposits 49:271–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Nadoll P, Angerer T, Mauk JL, French D, Walshe J (2014) The chemistry of hydrothermal magnetite: a review. Ore Geol Rev 61:1–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Newberry NG, Peacore DR, Essene EJ, Geissman JW (1982) Silicon in magnetite: high resolution microanalysis of magnetite-ilmenite intergrowths. Contrib Mineral Petrol 80:223–340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Nyström JO, Henrίquez F (1994) Magmatic features of iron ores of the Kiruna type in Chile and Sweden: ore textures and magnetites geochemistry. Econ Geol 89:820–839CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Polozov AG, Svensen HH, Planke S, Grishina SN, Fristad KE, Jerram DA (2016) The basalt pipes of the Tunguska Basin (Siberia, Russia): high temperature processes and volatile degassing to the end-Permian atmosphere. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 441:51–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Reichow MK, Pringle M, Al'Mukhamedov AI et al (2009) The timing and extent of the eruption of the Siberian Traps large igneous province: implications for the end-Permian environmental crisis. Earth Planet Sci Lett 277:9–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Schulz M, Mudelsee M (2002) REDFIT: estimating red-noise spectra directly from unevenly spaced paleoclimatic time series. Comput Geosci 28:421–426CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Shcheka SA, Romanenko IM, Chubarov VM (1977) Silica-bearing magnetites. Contrib Mineral Petrol 63:103–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Shimazaki H (1998) On the occurrence of silician magnetites. Resource Geol 48:23–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Shore M, Fowler AD (1996) Oscillatory zoning in minerals: a common phenomenon. Canadian Mineral 34:1111–1126Google Scholar
  36. Sillitoe RH (2003) Iron oxide-copper-gold deposits: an Andean view. Mineral Deposita 38:787–812CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Skirrow RG (2010) “Hematite-group” IOCG ± U systems: tectonic settings, hydrothermal characteristics, and Cu-Au and U mineralizing processes. In: Corriveau L, and Mumin H (eds) Exploring for iron oxide copper-gold deposits: Canada and global analogues. Geol Ass Canada pp 39–58Google Scholar
  38. Soloviev SG (2010) Iron oxide copper-gold and related mineralisation of the Siberian craton, Russia: 1—iron oxide deposits in the Angara and Ilim river basins, south-central Siberia. In: Porter TM (ed) Hydrothermal iron oxide copper-gold and related deposits: a global perspective, v. 4—advances in the understanding of IOCG deposits. PGC Publishing, Adelaide, pp 495–514Google Scholar
  39. Svensen H et al (2009) Siberian gas venting and the end-Permian environmental crisis. Earth Planet Sci Lett 277:490–500CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Vasiliev YR, Zolotukhin VV, Feoktistov GD, Prusskaya SN (2000) Evaluation of the volumes and genesis of Permo-Triassic trap magmatism on the Siberian Platform. Geol Geofiz 41:1696–1705Google Scholar
  41. von der Flaass GS (1992) Magmatic stage in evolution of the Angara-Ilim type ore-forming system. Russian Geol Geophys 33(2):67–72Google Scholar
  42. von der Flaass GS (1995) Cup-shaped structures of iron ore deposits in the south of the Siberian Platform (Russia). Geol Ore Depos 37:340–350Google Scholar
  43. von der Flaass GS (1997) Structural and genetic model of an ore field of the Angaro-Ilim type (Siberian Platform). Geol Ore Depos 39:461–473Google Scholar
  44. von der Flaass GS, Nikulin VI (2000) Atlas of ore field structures of iron-ore deposits. Irkutsk State University Publish Irkutsk, Irkutsk 192 ppGoogle Scholar
  45. Westendorp RW, Watkinson DH, Jonasson IR (1991) Silicon-bearing zoned magnetite crystals and the evolution of hydrothermal fluids at the Ansil Cu-Zn mine, Rouyn-Noranda, Quebec. Econ Geol 86:1110–1114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Williams PJ, Barton MD, Johnson D, Fontboté L, De Haller AGM, Oliver NHS, Marschik R (2005) Iron oxide copper-gold deposits: geology, space-time distribution, and possible modes of origin. Econ Geol, 100th Anniversary Vol: 371–405Google Scholar
  47. Xu H, Shen Z, Konish H (2014) Si-magnetite nano-precipitates in silician magnetite from banded iron formation: Z-contrast imaging and ab initio study. Am Mineral 99:2196–2202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Zang W, Fyfe WS (1995) Chloritization of the hydrothermally altered bedrock at the Igarape-Bahia gold deposit, Carajas, Brazil. Mineral Depos 30:30–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Else-Ragnhild Neumann
    • 1
    Email author
  • Henrik H. Svensen
    • 1
  • Alexander G. Polozov
    • 1
    • 2
  • Øyvind Hammer
    • 3
  1. 1.Centre for Earth Evolution and Dynamics, Department of GeosciencesUniversity of OsloOsloNorway
  2. 2.Institute of Geology of Ore Deposits, Petrography, Mineralogy, and GeochemistryRussian Academy of SciencesMoscowRussia
  3. 3.Natural History MuseumUniversity of OsloOsloNorway

Personalised recommendations