Mineralium Deposita

, Volume 50, Issue 4, pp 493–515 | Cite as

Geochemistry of magnetite from porphyry Cu and skarn deposits in the southwestern United States

  • Patrick Nadoll
  • Jeffrey L. Mauk
  • Richard A. Leveille
  • Alan E. Koenig


A combination of petrographic observations, laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), and statistical data exploration was used in this study to determine compositional variations in hydrothermal and igneous magnetite from five porphyry Cu–Mo and skarn deposits in the southwestern United States, and igneous magnetite from the unmineralized, granodioritic Inner Zone Batholith, Japan. The most important overall discriminators for the minor and trace element chemistry of magnetite from the investigated porphyry and skarn deposits are Mg, Al, Ti, V, Mn, Co, Zn, and Ga—of these the elements with the highest variance for (I) igneous magnetite are Mg, Al, Ti, V, Mn, Zn, for (II) hydrothermal porphyry magnetite are Mg, Ti, V, Mn, Co, Zn, and for (III) hydrothermal skarn magnetite are Mg, Ti, Mn, Zn, and Ga. Nickel could only be detected at levels above the limit of reporting (LOR) in two igneous magnetites. Equally, Cr could only be detected in one igneous occurrence. Copper, As, Mo, Ag, Au, and Pb have been reported in magnetite by other authors but could not be detected at levels greater than their respective LORs in our samples. Comparison with the chemical signature of igneous magnetite from the barren Inner Zone Batholith, Japan, suggests that V, Mn, Co, and Ga concentrations are relatively depleted in magnetite from the porphyry and skarn deposits. Higher formation conditions in combination with distinct differences between melt and hydrothermal fluid compositions are reflected in Al, Ti, V, and Ga concentrations that are, on average, higher in igneous magnetite than in hydrothermal magnetite (including porphyry and skarn magnetite). Low Ti and V concentrations in combination with high Mn concentrations are characteristic features of magnetite from skarn deposits. High Mg concentrations (<1,000 ppm) are characteristic for magnetite from magnesian skarn and likely reflect extensive fluid/rock interaction. In porphyry deposits, hydrothermal magnetite from different vein types can be distinguished by varying Ti, V, Mn, and Zn contents. Titanium and V concentrations are highly variable among hydrothermal and igneous magnetites, but Ti concentrations above 3,560 ppm could only be detected in igneous magnetite, and V concentrations are on average lower in hydrothermal magnetite. The highest Ti concentrations are present in igneous magnetite from gabbro and monzonite. The lowest Ti concentrations were recorded in igneous magnetite from granodiorite and granodiorite breccia and largely overlap with Ti concentrations found in hydrothermal porphyry magnetite. Magnesium and Mn concentrations vary between magnetite from different skarn deposits but are generally greater than in hydrothermal magnetite from the porphyry deposits. High Mg, and low Ti and V concentrations characterize hydrothermal magnetite from magnesian skarn deposits and follow a trend that indicates that magnetite from skarn (calcic and magnesian) commonly has low Ti and V concentrations.


Magnetite Hydrothermal Porphyry Skarn Minor and trace elements 



We thank Sarah Dare, Roberto Xavier, Georges Beaudoin, Karen Kelley and one anonymous reviewer, who raised important questions and provided constructive comments that helped to strengthen this paper.

Conflict of interest

Research supported by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Department of the Interior, under USGS award number 3607415/06HQGR0173, and by Freeport McMoRan Copper & Gold Inc. Any use of trade, product, or firm names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.

Supplementary material

126_2014_539_MOESM1_ESM.docx (3.4 mb)
ESM 1 Samples selected for LA-ICP-MS analysis with information about the deposit, magnetite type, host rock, type of alteration, and, if applicable, drill hole number/mine level with corresponding depths. (DOCX 2704 kb)
126_2014_539_MOESM2_ESM.docx (3.4 mb)
ESM 2 (DOCX 2698 kb)


  1. Ahmad SN, Rose AW (1980) Fluid inclusions in porphyry and skarn ore at Santa Rita, New Mexico. Econ Geol 75:229–250. doi: 10.2113/gsecongeo.75.2.229 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Arancibia ON, Clark AH (1996) Early magnetite-amphibole-plagioclase alteration-mineralization in the Island copper porphyry copper-gold-molybdenum deposit, British Columbia. Econ Geol 91:402–438. doi: 10.2113/gsecongeo.91.2.402 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Audetat A, Pettke T (2006) Evolution of a porphyry-Cu mineralized magma system at Santa Rita, New Mexico (USA). J Petrol 47:2021–2046. doi: 10.1093/petrology/egl035 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Audetat A, Pettke T, Heinrich CA, Bodnar RJ (2008) Special paper: the composition of magmatic-hydrothermal fluids in barren and mineralized intrusions. Econ Geol 103:877–908. doi: 10.2113/gsecongeo.103.5.877 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Baker T, Van Achterberg E, Ryan CG, Lang JR (2004) Composition and evolution of ore fluids in a magmatic-hydrothermal skarn deposit. Geology 32:117–120. doi: 10.1130/g19950.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Barnes SJ, Roeder PL (2001) The range of spinel composition in terrestrial mafic and ultramafic rocks. J Petrol 42:2279–2302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Beane RE, Titley SR (1981) Porphyry copper deposits, part II. Hydrothermal alteration and mineralization. Econ Geol 75th Anniversary:235–269Google Scholar
  8. Borisenko LF, Lapin AV (1971) O kontsentratsiyakh elementov-primesey v titanomagnetite i magnetite endogennykh mestorozhdeniy razlichnykh tipov. Trace-element concentrations in titanomagnetite and magnetite from endogene deposits of various types. Dokl Akad Nauk SSSR 196:1441–1444Google Scholar
  9. Borisenko LF, Lapin AV (1972) Trace-element concentrations in titanomagnetite and magnetite from magmatic, contact-metasomatic and hydrothermal deposits of different types. Dokl Earth Sci Sect 196:217–220Google Scholar
  10. Buddington AF, Lindsley DH (1964) Iron-titanium oxide minerals and synthetic equivalents. J Petrol 5:310–357. doi: 10.1093/petrology/5.2.310 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Candela PA (1997) A review of shallow, ore-related granites: textures, volatiles, and ore metals. J Petrol 38:1619–1633. doi: 10.1093/petroj/38.12.1619 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Carew MJ, Mark G, Oliver NHS, Pearson N (2006) Trace element geochemistry of magnetite and pyrite in Fe oxide (±Cu-Au) mineralised systems: insights into the geochemistry of ore-forming fluids. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 70:A83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cook A, Robinson RF (1962) Geology of Kennecott Copper corporation’s Safford copper deposit. In: Weber RH, Peirce HW (eds) Mogollon Rim Region east central Arizona. New Mexico Geological Society, 13th Filed Conference, pp 143–148Google Scholar
  14. Creasey SC (1980) Chronology of intrusion and deposition of porphyry copper ores, Globe-Miami district, Arizona. Econ Geol 75:830–844CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cygan GL, Candela PA (1995) Preliminary study of gold partitioning among pyrrhotite, pyrite, magnetite, and chalcopyrite in gold-saturated chloride solutions at 600 to 7008C, 140 MPa, 1400 bars. In: Thompson JFH (ed) Magmas, fluids, and ore deposits, short course. Mineralogical Association of Canada, pp 129–137Google Scholar
  16. Dare SAS, Barnes S-J, Beaudoin G (2012) Variation in trace element content of magnetite crystallized from a fractionating sulfide liquid, Sudbury, Canada: implications for provenance discrimination. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 88:27–50. doi: 10.1016/j.gca.2012.04.032 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dupuis C, Beaudoin G (2011) Discriminant diagrams for iron oxide trace element fingerprinting of mineral deposit types. Mineral Deposita 46:319–335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. (2009) GERM partition coefficient (Kd) database. EarthRef.orgGoogle Scholar
  19. Einaudi MT (1981) General features and origin of skarns associated with porphyry copper plutons. In: Titley SR (ed) Advances in geology of the porphyry copper deposits. The University of Arizona Press, Tucson, pp 185–209Google Scholar
  20. Einaudi MT, Burt DM (1982) Introduction; terminology, classification, and composition of skarn deposits. Econ Geol 77:745–754. doi: 10.2113/gsecongeo.77.4.745 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Einaudi MT, Meinert LD, Newberry RJ (1981) Skarn deposits. Econ Geol 75th Anniversary Volume:317–391Google Scholar
  22. Enders MS, Knickerbocker C, Titley SR, Southam G (2006) The role of bacteria in the supergene environment of the Morenci porphyry copper deposit, Greenlee County, Arizona. Econ Geol 101:59–70. doi: 10.2113/101.1.59 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. English JM, Johnston ST (2004) The Laramide orogeny: what were the driving forces? Int Geol Rev 46:833–838. doi: 10.2747/0020-6814.46.9.833 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Ewart A, Griffin WL (1994) Application of proton-microprobe data to trace-element partitioning in volcanic rocks. Chem Geol 117:251–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Frietsch R (1970) Trace elements in magnetite and hematite mainly from northern Sweden. Sver Geol Unders 64:136Google Scholar
  26. Frost BR, Lindsley DH (1991) Occurrence of iron-titanium oxides in igneous rocks In: Lindsley DH (ed) Oxide minerals: petrologic and magnetic significance. Reviews in Minerology, Mineralogical Society of America, pp 489–509Google Scholar
  27. Gaetani GA, Grove TL (1997) Partitioning of moderately siderophile elements among olivine, silicate melt, and sulfide melt: constraints on core formation in the Earth and Mars. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 61:1,829–821,846CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Gammons CH, Williams-Jones AE (1997) Chemical mobility of gold in the porphyry-epithermal environment. Econ Geol 92:45–59. doi: 10.2113/gsecongeo.92.1.45 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Gerwe J, Stavast W, Young-Mitchell M (2007) Safford district geologic tour guidebook. Freeport-McMoRan ExplorationGoogle Scholar
  30. Ghiorso MS, Sack O (1991a) Thermochemistry of the oxide minerals. In: Lindsley DH (ed) Oxide minerals: petrologic and magnetic significance. Mineralogical Society of America, Washington DC, pp 221–264Google Scholar
  31. Ghiorso MS, Sack O (1991b) Fe-Ti oxide geothermometry: thermodynamic formulation and the estimation of intensive variables in silicic magmas. Contrib Mineral Petrol 108:485–510CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Green TH (1994) Experimental studies of trace-element partitioning applicable to igneous petrogenesis–Sedona 16 years later. Chem Geol 117:1–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Grigsby JD (1990) Detrital magnetite as a provenance indicator. J Sediment Res 60:940–951. doi: 10.1306/d426764f-2b26-11d7-8648000102c1865d Google Scholar
  34. Guilbert JM, Lowell JD (1974) Variations in zoning patterns in porphyry ore deposits. Can Inst Min Metall Bull 67:99–109Google Scholar
  35. Gustafson LB, Hunt JP (1975) The porphyry copper deposit at El Salvador, Chile. Econ Geol 70:857–912. doi: 10.2113/gsecongeo.70.5.857 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Haggerty SE (1991) Oxide mineralogy of the upper mantle. In: Lindsley Donald H (ed) Oxide minerals: petrologic and magnetic significance. Mineralogical Society of America, Washington DC, pp 355–416Google Scholar
  37. Harris RC, Richard SM (1998) Mineralized areas in the San Carlos-Safford-Duncan-Nonpoint-Source management zone, Arizona. Open-File Report 98-3. US Geological Survey Open File:34Google Scholar
  38. Heinrich CA (2005) The physical and chemical evolution of low-salinity magmatic fluids at the porphyry to epithermal transition: a thermodynamic study. Mineral Deposita 39:864–889CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hendry DAF, Chivas AR, Reed SJB, Long JVP (1982) Geochemical evidence for magmatic fluids in porphyry copper mineralization. Contrib Mineral Petrol 78:404–412CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hernon RM, Jones WR, Moore SL (1964) Geology of the Santa Rita quadrangle, New Mexico. Map GQ 306. US Geological SurveymmGoogle Scholar
  41. Huang X-W, Zhou M-F, Qi L, Gao J-F, Wang Y-W (2013) Re–Os isotopic ages of pyrite and chemical composition of magnetite from the Cihai magmatic–hydrothermal Fe deposit, NW China. Miner Deposita:1–22. doi: 10.1007/s00126-013-0467-2
  42. Hutton CO (1950) Studies of heavy detrital minerals. Geol Soc Am Bull 61:635–710. doi: 10.1130/0016-7606(1950)61[635:sohdm];2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Ilton ES, Eugster HP (1989) Base metal exchange between magnetite and a chloride-rich hydrothermal fluid. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 53:291–301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Ionov D, Harmer RE (2002) Trace element distribution in calcite-dolomite carbonatites from Spitskop: inferences for differentiation of carbonatite magmas and the origin of carbonates in mantle xenoliths. Earth Planet Sci Lett 198:495–510CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Ishihara S (1977) Magnetite-series and ilmenite-series granitic rocks. Min Geol 27:293–305Google Scholar
  46. Jenner FE, O’Neill HSC, Arculus RJ, Mavrogenes JA (2010) The magnetite crisis in the evolution of arc-related magmas and the initial concentration of Au, Ag and Cu. J Petrol 51:2445–2464. doi: 10.1093/petrology/egq063 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Kamvong T, Zaw K, Siegele R (2007) PIXE/PIGE microanalysis of trace elements in hydrothermal magnetite and exploration significance: a pilot study 15th Australian Conference on Nuclear and Complementary Techniques of Analysis and 9th Vacuum Society of Australia Congress. University of Melbourne, MelbourneGoogle Scholar
  48. Kesler SE, Chryssoulis SL, Simon G (2002) Gold in porphyry copper deposits: its abundance and fate. Ore Geol Rev 21:103–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Klemm DD, Henckel J, Dehm RM, Von Gruenewaldt G (1985) The geochemistry of titanomagnetite in magnetite layers and their host rocks of the eastern Bushveld Complex. Econ Geol 80:1075–1088CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Klemme S, Günther D, Hametner K, Prowatke S, Zack T (2006) The partitioning of trace elements between ilmenite, ulvospinel, armalcolite and silicate melts with implications for the early differentiation of the moon. Chem Geol 234:251–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Langton JM, Williams SA (1982) Structural, petrological and mineralogical controls for the Dos Pobres orebody; Lone Star mining district, Graham County, Arizona. In: Titley SR (ed) Advances in geology of porphyry copper deposits; southwestern North America. University of Arizona Press, Tucson, pp 335–352Google Scholar
  52. Larocque ACL, Stimac JA, McMahon G, Jackman JA, Chartrand VP, Hickmott D, Gauerke E (2002) Ion-microprobe analysis of FeTi oxides: optimization for the determination of invisible gold. Econ Geol 97:159–164. doi: 10.2113/97.1.159 Google Scholar
  53. LaTourrette TZ, Burnett DS, Bacon CR (1991) Uranium and minor-element partitioning in Fe-Ti oxides and zircon from partially melted granodiorite, Crater Lake, Oregon. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 55:457–469CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Lee MJ, Lee JI, Moutte J (2005) Compositional variation of Fe-Ti oxides from the Sokli complex, north-eastern Finland. Geosci J 9:1–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Lemarchand F, Villemant B, Calas G (1987) Trace element distribution coefficients in alkaline series. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 51:1071–1081CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Lindsley DH (1976) The crystal chemistry and structure of oxide minerals as exemplified by the Fe-Ti oxides. In: Rumble III D (ed) Oxide minerals. Reviews in Mineralogy, Mineralogical Society of America, pp L1–L60Google Scholar
  57. Lindsley DH (1991) Oxide minerals: petrologic and magnetic significance. Reviews in Mineralogy, Mineralogical Society of America, pp 509Google Scholar
  58. Longerich HP, Jackson SE, Günther D (1996) Laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometric transient signal data acquisition and analyte concentration calculation. J Anal At Spectrom 11:899–904CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Lowell JD, Guilbert JM (1970) Lateral and vertical alteration-mineralization zoning in porphyry ore deposits. Econ Geol 65:373–408CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Mahood G, Hildreth W (1983) Large partition coefficients for trace elements in high-silica rhyolites. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 47:11–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Manske SL, Paul AH (2002) Geology of a major new porphyry copper center in the Superior (Pioneer) district, Arizona. Econ Geol 97:197–220. doi: 10.2113/97.2.197 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. McCandless TE, Ruiz J (1993) Rhenium-osmium evidence for regional mineralization in southwestern North America. Science 261:1282–1286. doi: 10.1126/science.261.5126.1282 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. McDowell FW (1971) K-Ar ages of igneous rocks from the western United States. Lsochron West 2:1–16Google Scholar
  64. McQueen KG, Cross AJ (1998) Magnetite as a geochemical sampling medium: application to skarn deposits. In: Eggleton RA (ed) The State of the Regolith. Geological Society of Australia, Brisbane, pp 194–199Google Scholar
  65. Meinert LD (1987) Skarn zonation and fluid evolution in the Groundhog Mine, Central mining district, New Mexico. Econ Geol 82:539–545. doi: 10.2113/econgeo.82.3.539 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Meinert LD, Dipple GM, Nicolescu S (2005) World skarn deposits. Econ Geol 100th Anniversary Volume:299–336Google Scholar
  67. Mitcham TW (1952) Indicator minerals, Coeur d’Alene Silver Belt [Idaho]. Econ Geol 47:414–450CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Mollo S, Putirka K, Iezzi G, Scarlato P (2013) The control of cooling rate on titanomagnetite composition: implications for a geospeedometry model applicable to alkaline rocks from Mt. Etna volcano. Contrib Mineral Petrol 165:457–475. doi: 10.1007/s00410-012-0817-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Moolick RT, Durek JJ (1966) The Morenci district. In: Titley SR, Hicks CL (eds) Geology of the porphyry copper deposits–Southwestern North America. The University of Arizona Press, Tuscon, pp 221–232Google Scholar
  70. Mullen DH, Storms WR (1948) Copper Flat zinc deposit, central mining district, Grant County, New Mexico United States Department of the Interior–Bureau of Mines. University of Michigan, pp 24Google Scholar
  71. Muntean JL, Einaudi MT (2001) Porphyry-epithermal transition: Maricunga Belt, northern Chile. Econ Geol 96:743–772. doi: 10.2113/96.4.743 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Nadoll P (2013) Mineral inclusions in magnetite as a guide to exploration–Preliminary results. 12th SGA Biennial Meeting 2013 Proceedings 1:280–282Google Scholar
  73. Nadoll P, Koenig AE (2011) LA-ICP-MS of magnetite: methods and reference materials. J Anal At Spectrom 26:1872–1877CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Nadoll P, Mauk JL, Hayes TS, Koenig AE, Box SE (2012) Geochemistry of magnetite from hydrothermal ore deposits and host rocks of the Mesoproterozoic Belt Supergroup, United States. Econ Geol 107:1275–1292. doi: 10.2113/econgeo.107.6.1275 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Nadoll P, Angerer T, Mauk JL, French D, Walshe J (2014) The chemistry of hydrothermal magnetite: a review. Ore Geol Rev 61:1–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Newberry NG, Peacor DR, Essene EJ, Geissman JW (1982) Silicon in magnetite: high resolution microanalysis of magnetite-ilmenite intergrowths. Contrib Mineral Petrol 80:334–340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Nielsen RL (1968) Hypogene texture and mineral zoning in a copper-bearing granodiorite porphyry stock, Santa Rita, New Mexico. Econ Geol 63:37–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Nielsen RL (1970) Mineralization and alteration in calcareous rocks near the Santa Rita stock, New Mexico. Geol Soc New Mexico Guidebook 21st Field Conf.:133–139Google Scholar
  79. Nielsen RL, Forsythe LM, Gallahan WE, Fisk MR (1994) Major- and trace-element magnetite-melt equilibria. Chem Geol 117:167–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Powell R, Powell M (1977) Geothermometry and oxygen barometry using coexisting iron-titanium oxides: a reappraisal. Mineral Mag 41:257–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Ray GE, Webster ICL (2007) Geology and chemistry of the low Ti magnetite-bearing Heff Cu-Au skarn and its associated plutonic rocks, Heffley Lake, south-central British Columbia. Explor Min Geol 16:159–186. doi: 10.2113/gsemg.16.3-4.159 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Reber LE (1916) The mineralization at Clifton-Morenci, Arizona. Econ Geol 11:528–573. doi: 10.2113/gsecongeo.11.6.528 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Reguir EP, Chakhmouradian AR, Halden NM, Yang P (2008) Early magmatic and reaction-induced trends in magnetite from the carbonatites of Kerimasi, Tanzania. Can Mineral 46:879–900CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Richard SM, Reynolds SJ, Spencer JE, Pearthree PA (2000) Geologic map of Arizona: Arizona Geological Survey Map 35, 1 sheet, scale 1:1,000,000Google Scholar
  85. Righter K, Leeman WP, Hervig RL (2006a) Partitioning of Ni, Co and V between spinel-structured oxides and silicate melts: importance of spinel composition. Chem Geol 227:1–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Righter K, Sutton SR, Newville M, Le L, Schwandt CS, Uchida H, Lavina B, Downs RT (2006b) An experimental study of the oxidation state of vanadium in spinel and basaltic melt with implications for the origin of planetary basalt. Am Mineral 91:1643–1656. doi: 10.2138/am.2006.2111 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Robinson RF, Cook A (1966) The Safford copper deposit, Lone Star mining district, Graham County, Arizona. In: Titley SR, Hicks CL (eds) Geology of the porphyry copper deposits, southwestern North America. University of Arizona Press, Tucson, pp 251–266Google Scholar
  88. Rose AW, Baltosser WW (1966) The porphyry copper deposit at Santa Rita, New Mexico. In: Titley SR, Hicks CL (eds) Geology of the porphyry copper deposits–Southwestern North America. The University of Arizona Press, Tucson, pp 205–220Google Scholar
  89. Rumble D (ed) (1976) Oxide minerals. Mineralogical Society of America, Short Course NotesGoogle Scholar
  90. Rusk BG, Reed MH, Dilles JH, Klemm LM, Heinrich CA (2004) Compositions of magmatic hydrothermal fluids determined by LA-ICP-MS of fluid inclusions from the porphyry copper-molybdenum deposit at Butte, MT. Chem Geol 210:173–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Rusk BG, Reed MH, Dilles JH (2008) Fluid inclusion evidence for magmatic-hydrothermal fluid evolution in the porphyry copper-molybdenum deposit at Butte, Montana. Econ Geol 103:307–334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Rusk BG, Oliver N, Brown A, Lilly R, Jungmann D (2009) Barren magnetite breccias in the Cloncurry region, Australia; comparisons to IOCG deposits. In: Williams PJ (ed) Proceedings of the 10th Biennial SGA Meeting of The Society for Geology Applied to Mineral Deposits. The Society for Geology Applied to Mineral Deposits, Townsville, pp 656–658Google Scholar
  93. Rusk B, Oliver N, Blenkinsop T, Zhang D (2010) Physical and chemical characteristics of the Ernest Henry Iron Oxide Copper Gold Deposit, Cloncurry, Queensland, Australia; implications for IOCG Genesis. In: Porter T (ed) Hydrothermal iron oxide copper-gold and related deposits: a global perspective. PGC Publishing, Adelaide, pp 201–221Google Scholar
  94. Ryabchikov ID, Kogarko LN (2006) Magnetite compositions and oxygen fugacities of the Khibina magmatic system. Lithos 91:35–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Sack RO, Ghiorso MS (1991) Chromian spinels as petrogenetic indicators; thermodynamics and petrological applications. Am Mineral 76:827–847Google Scholar
  96. Schmitt HA (1968) The porphyry copper deposits in their regional setting. In: Titley S, Hicks CL (eds) Geology of the porphyry copper deposits, southwestern North America. The University of Arizona Press, pp 17–33Google Scholar
  97. Seedorff E, Dilles JH, Proffett Jr. JM, Einaudi MT, Zurcher L, Stavast WJA, Johnson DA, Barton MD (2005) Porphyry deposits: characteristics and origin of hypogene features. Econ Geol 100th Anniversary Volume:251–298Google Scholar
  98. Shcheka SA, Platkov AV, Vrzhosek AA, Levashov GB, Oktyabrsky RA (1980) The trace element paragenesis of magnetite. Nauka:147Google Scholar
  99. Shcheka SA, Zabelin VV, Chubarov VM (1982) Magnetites and ferric hydroxides in sediments of the Japan and Philippine seas and their genetic information. Mar Geol 45:M23–M29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Shcheka SA, Naumova VV, Wrzosek AA (1988) Trace-element paragenesis in hydrothermal magnetite as indicators of the origin and ore potential of mineralization. Dokl Akad Nauk SSSR 294:958–962Google Scholar
  101. Shrivastava A, Gupta V (2011) Methods for the determination of limit of detection and limit of quantitation of the analytical methods. Chron Young Sci 2:21–25. doi: 10.4103/2229-5186.79345 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Sillitoe RH (2000) Gold-rich porphyry deposits: descriptive and genetic models and their role in exploration and discovery. Rev Econ Geol 13:315–345Google Scholar
  103. Sillitoe RH (2010) Porphyry Copper systems. Econ Geol 105:3–41. doi: 10.2113/gsecongeo.105.1.3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Simon AC, Candela PA, Piccoli PM, Mengason M, Englander L (2008) The effect of crystal-melt partitioning on the budgets of Cu, Au, and Ag. Am Mineral 93:1437–1448. doi: 10.2138/am.2008.2812 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Singoyi B, Danyushevsky L, Davidson GJ, Large R, Zaw K (2006) Determination of trace elements in magnetites from hydrothermal deposits using the LA-ICP-MS technique. Abstracts of oral and poster presentations from the SEG 2006 conference. Society of Economic Geologists, Keystone, pp 367–368Google Scholar
  106. Spong PL (1998) Geochemistry of magnetite from convergent-margin plutonic rocks of Australia, Japan and New Zealand. University of Auckland, pp 146Google Scholar
  107. Stimac J, Hickmott D (1994) Trace-element partition-coefficients for ilmenite, ortho-pyroxene and pyrrhotite in rhyolite determined by micro-PIXE analysis. Chem Geol 117:313–330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Titley SR (1981) Advances in geology of the porphyry copper deposits of southwestern North America. The University of Arizona Press, TucsonGoogle Scholar
  109. Titley SR (2001) Crustal affinities of metallogenesis in the American Southwest. Econ Geol 96:1323–1342. doi: 10.2113/gsecongeo.96.6.1323 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Titley SR, Beane RE (1981) Porphyry copper deposits, part I. Geologic settings, petrology, and tectogenesis. Econ Geol 75th Anniversary:214–235Google Scholar
  111. Togashi S, Terashima S (1997) The behavior of gold in unaltered island arc tholeiitic rocks from Izu-Oshima, Fuji, and Osoremaya Volcanic Areas, Japan. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 61:543–554CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Toplis MJ, Carroll MR (1995) An experimental study of the influence of oxygen fugacity on Fe-Ti oxide stability, phase relations, and mineral-melt equilibria in ferro-basaltic systems. J Petrol 36:1137–1170. doi: 10.1093/petrology/36.5.1137 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Tosdal RM, Dilles JH, Cooke DR (2009) From source to sinks in auriferous magmatic-hydrothermal porphyry and epithermal deposits. Elements 5:289–295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Tracy RJ (1982) Compositional zoning and inclusions in metamorphic minerals. In: Ferry JM (ed) Rev mineral. Mineralogical Society of America, Washington, pp 355–397Google Scholar
  115. Turner DR, Bowman JR (1993) Origin and evolution of skarn fluids, Empire zinc skarns, Central Mining District, New Mexico, U.S.A. Appl Geochem 8:9–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. U.S. Geological Survey (1997) The mineral industry of New Mexico. U.S. Geol Surv Miner Yearb 1997:5Google Scholar
  117. Whalen JB, Chappel BW (1988) Opaque mineralogy and mafic mineral chemistry of I- and S-type granites of the Lachlan fold belt, southeast Australia. Am Mineral 73:281–296Google Scholar
  118. Wones DR (1989) Significance of the assemblage titanite + magnetite + quartz in granitic rocks. Am Mineral 74:744–749Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg (outside the USA) 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Patrick Nadoll
    • 1
    • 4
  • Jeffrey L. Mauk
    • 1
    • 5
  • Richard A. Leveille
    • 2
  • Alan E. Koenig
    • 3
  1. 1.School of Geography, Geology and Environmental ScienceThe University of AucklandAucklandNew Zealand
  2. 2.Freeport McMoRan Copper & Gold Inc.PhoenixUSA
  3. 3.U.S. Geological SurveyMS-964 Denver Federal CenterDenverUSA
  4. 4.CSIRO-ARRCKensingtonAustralia
  5. 5.U.S. Geological SurveyMS-964 Denver Federal CenterDenverUSA

Personalised recommendations