Mineralium Deposita

, Volume 48, Issue 1, pp 1–56 | Cite as

The Bushveld Complex, South Africa: formation of platinum–palladium, chrome- and vanadium-rich layers via hydrodynamic sorting of a mobilized cumulate slurry in a large, relatively slowly cooling, subsiding magma chamber

Article

Abstract

Platinum-group element (PGE) deposits in the Bushveld Complex and other layered intrusions form when large, incompletely solidified magma chambers undergo central subsidence in response to crustal loading, resulting in slumping of semi-consolidated cumulate slurries to the centres of the intrusions and hydrodynamic unmixing of the slurries to form dense layers enriched in sulfides, oxides, olivine and pyroxene and less dense layers enriched in plagioclase. The most economic PGE, Cr and V reefs form in large, multiple-replenished intrusions because these cool relatively slowly and their central portions subside prior to termination of magmatism and complete cumulate solidification. The depth of emplacement has to be relatively shallow as, otherwise, ductile crust would not be able to flex and collapse. In smaller intrusions, cooling rates are faster, subsidence is less pronounced and, where it occurs, the cumulate may be largely solidified, resulting in insignificant mush mobility and mineral sorting. Layering is thus less pronounced and less regular and continuous and the grades of the reefs are lower, but the reefs can be relatively thicker. An additional factor controlling the PGE, Cr and V prospectivity of intrusions is their location within cratons. Intra-cratonic environments offer more stable emplacement conditions that are more amenable to the formation of large, layered igneous bodies. Furthermore, intrusions sited within cratons are more readily preserved because cratons are underlain by thick, buoyant keels of harzburgite that prevent plate tectonic recycling and destruction of crust.

Supplementary material

126_2012_436_MOESM1_ESM.xls (162 kb)
ESM 1(XLS 161 kb)

References

  1. Alapieti TT, Lahtinen JJ (2002) Platinum-group element mineralization in layered intrusions of northern Finland and the Kola Peninsula, Russia. In: Cabri LJ (ed) The geology, geochemistry, mineralogy and mineral beneficiation of platinum-group elements. Can Inst Min Metall Spec Vol. 54:507–546Google Scholar
  2. Alapieti TT, Kujanpää J, Lahtinen JJ, Papunen H (1989) The Kemi stratiform chromitite deposit, northern Finland. Econ Geol 84:1057–1077CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Andersen JCØ, Thalhammer OAR (2006) Platinum-group element and Re–Os isotope variations of the high-grade Kilvenjärvi platinum-group element deposit, Portimo Layered Igneous Complex, Finland. Econ Geol 101:159–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Andersen JCØ, Rasmussen H, Nielsen TFD, Ronsbo JG (1998) The triple group and the platinova Au and Pd reefs in the Skaergaard intrusion: stratigraphic and petrographic relations. Econ Geol 93:485–509CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Armitage PEB, McDonald I, Edwards SJ, Manby GM (2002) Platinum-group element mineralization in the Platreef and calc-silicate footwall at Sandsloot, Potgietersrus District, South Africa. Trans Inst Min Metall B 111:36–45Google Scholar
  6. Arndt NT (2005) The conduits of magmatic ore deposits. In: Mungall JE (ed) Exploration for platinum-group element deposits. Min Assoc Can., Short Course Series 35: 181-201Google Scholar
  7. Arndt N, Jenner G, Ohnenstetter M, Deloule E, Wilson AH (2005) Trace elements in the Merensky Reef and adjacent norites Bushveld Complex South Africa. Mineralium Deposita 40:550–575CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ashwal LD (1990) Anorthosites. Springer, Berlin, p 422Google Scholar
  9. Ashwal LD, Webb SJ, Knoper MW (2005) Magmatic stratigraphy in the Bushveld northern lobe: continous geophysical and mineralogical data from the 2950 m Bellevue drillcore. S Afr J Geol 108:199–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Balane E, De Villiers JPR, Eeckhout SG, Glatzel P, Toplis MJ, Allard T, Fritsche, Galoisy L, Calas G (2006) The oxidation state of vanadium in titanomagnetite from layered basic intrusions. Am Mineral 91:953–956CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Ballhaus CG (1988) Potholes of the Merensky Reef at Brakspruit shaft, Rustenburg platinum mines: primary disturbances in the magmatic stratigraphy. Econ Geol 83:1140–1158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Ballhaus CG, Stumpfl EF (1986) Sulphide and platinum mineralization in the Merensky Reef: evidence from hydrous silicates and fluid inclusions. Contrib Mineral Petrol 94:193–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Ballhaus CG, Sylvester P (2000) Noble metal enrichment processes in the Merensky Reef, Bushveld Complex. J Petrol 41:545–561CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Barnes SJ (1989) Are Bushveld U-type parent magmas boninites or contaminated komatiites? Contrib Min Petrol 101:447–457CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Barnes SJ (1993) Partitioning of the PGE and gold between silicate and sulphide magmas in the Munni Munni Complex, Western Australia. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 57:1277–1290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Barnes S-J (1998a) Why are Pd/Pt, Rh/Pt, Pd/Ir and Pd/Os ratios higher in sulfide ores than in mafic and ultramafic magmas? EOS 78:F799Google Scholar
  17. Barnes SJ (1998b) Chromites in komatiites, 1: magmatic controls on crystallization and composition. J Petrol 39:1689–1720CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Barnes SJ, Fiorentini ML (2008) Iridium, ruthenium and rhodium in komatiites: evidence for iridium alloy saturation. Chem Geol 257:44–58Google Scholar
  19. Barnes SJ, Naldrett AJ (1985) Geochemistry of the J-M (Howland) reef of the stillwater complex, Minneapolis adit area; I, sulfide chemistry and sulfide-olivine equilibrium. Econ Geol 80:627–645Google Scholar
  20. Barnes SJ, Naldrett AJ (1986) Geochemistry of the J-M reef of the Stillwater Complex, Minneapolis Adit area II: silicate mineral chemistry and petrogenesis. J Petrol 27:791–825CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Barnes SJ, Osborne G, Cook D, Barnes L, Maier WD, Godel B (2011) The Santa Rita Ni sulfide deposit in the Fazenda Mirabela intrusion, Bahia, Brazil: geology, sulfide geochemistry and genesis. Econ Geol 106:1083–1110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Barnes S-J, Picard CP (1993) The behaviour of platinum-group elements during partial melting, crystal fractionation, and sulphide segregation: an example from the Cape Smith Fold Belt, northern Quebec. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 57:79–87Google Scholar
  23. Barnes S-J, Maier WD (2002a) Platinum-group elements and microstructures of normal Merensky Reef from Impala Platinum Mines, Bushveld Complex. J Petrol 43:103–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Barnes S-J, Maier WD (2002b) Platinum-group element distributions in the Rustenburg layered suite of the Bushveld Complex, South Africa. In: Cabri LJ (ed) The geology, geochemistry, mineralogy and mineral beneficiation of platinum-group elements. Can Inst Min Metall Spec Vol 54:431–458Google Scholar
  25. Barnes S-J, Naldrett AJ, Gorton MP (1985) The origin of the fractionation of platinum-group elements in terrestrial magmas. Chem Geol 53:303–323CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Barnes S-J, Maier WD, Ashwal LD (2004) Platinum-group elements in the Upper Zone of the Bushveld Complex. Chem Geol 208:293–317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Barnes S-J, Savard D, Bédard LP, Maier WD (2009) Selenium and sulfur concentrations in the Bushveld Complex of South Africa and implications for formation of the platinum-group element deposits. Mineralium Deposita 44:647–663CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Barnes S-J, Maier WD, Curl E (2010) Composition of the marginal rocks and sills of the Rustenburg layered suite, Bushveld Complex, South Africa: implications for the formation of the PGE deposits. Econ Geol 105:1491–1511CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Barry JA (1964) Pothole and koppie investigation at Rustenburg Platinum Mines. Internal report, Johannesburg Consolidated Industries, 5 ppGoogle Scholar
  30. Barton JM, Cawthorn RG, White JA (1986) The role of contamination in the evolution of the Platreef of the Bushveld Complex. Econ Geol 81:1096–1108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Becker H, Horan MF, Walker RJ, Gao S, Lorand J-P, Rudnick RL (2006) Highly siderophile element composition of the Earth’s primitive mantle: constraints from new data on peridotite massifs and xenoliths. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 70:4528–4550CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Bédard JH (1994) A procedure for calculating the equilibrium distribution of trace elements among the minerals of cumulate rocks, and the concentration of trace elements in the coexisting liquids. Chem Geol 118:143–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Bédard JP, Sparks RSJ, Renner R, Cheadle MJ, Hallworth MA (1988) Peridotite sills and metasomatic gabbros in the eastern layered series of the Rhum complex. J Geol Soc Lond 145:207–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Bédard JHJ, Marsh BD, Hersum TG, Naslund HR, Mukasa SB (2007) Large-scale mechanical redistribution of orthopyroxene and plagioclase in the basement sill, ferrar dolerites, McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica: petrological, mineral–chemical and field evidence for channelized movement of crystals and melt. J Pet 48:2289–2326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Begg GC, Griffin WL, Natapov LM, O’Reilly SY, Grand SP, O’Neill CJ, Hronsky JMA (2009) The lithospheric architecture of Africa: seismic tomography, mantle petrology, and tectonic evolution. Geosphere 5:23–50Google Scholar
  36. Borisov A, Palme H (2000) Solubilities of noble metals in Fe containing silicate melt as derived from experiments in Fe-free systems. Amer Mineral 85:1665–1673Google Scholar
  37. Boudreau AE (1988) Investigations of the Stillwater Complex: 4. The role of volatiles in the petrogenesis of the J-M Reef, Minneapolis adit section. Can Min 26:193–208Google Scholar
  38. Boudreau AE (1994) Mineral segregation during crystal ageing in two-crystal, two-component systems. S Afr J Geol 97:473–485Google Scholar
  39. Boudreau AE (1999) PELE—a version of the MELTS software program for the PC platform. Computers Geosci 25:201–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Boudreau AE (2008) Modelling the Merensky Reef, Bushveld Complex, Republic of South Africa. Contrib Min Petrol 156:431–437CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Boudreau AE, McCallum IS (1992) Concentration of platinum-group elements by magmatic fluids in layered intrusions. Econ Geol 87:1830–1848CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Boudreau AE, Meurer WP (1999a) Concentration of platinum-group elements by magmatic fluids in layered intrusions. Econ Geol 94:1830–1848Google Scholar
  43. Boudreau AE, Meurer WP (1999b) Chromatographic separation of the platinum-group elements, gold, base metals and sulfur during degassing of a compacting and solidifying igneous crystal pile. Contr Mineral Petrol 134:174–185Google Scholar
  44. Brenan JM, Andrews D (2001) High-temperature stability of laurite and Ru–Os–Ir alloy and their role in PGE fractionation in mafic magmas. Can Mineral 39:341–360CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Bristow DG, Cawthorn RG, Harmer J, Lee CA, Tegner C, Viljoen MJ, Walraven F, Wislson JR (1993) Excursion guide—symposium on layering in igneous complexes. Wager and Brown 25th Anniversary Commemorative Meeting, Johannesburg, 59 ppGoogle Scholar
  46. Brown GM (1956) The layered ultrabasic rocks of Rhum, inner Hebrides. Phil Trans Roy Soc Lond B240:1–53Google Scholar
  47. Buchanan DL (1975) The petrography of the Bushveld Complex intersected by boreholes in the Bethal area. Trans Geol Soc S Afr 78:335–348Google Scholar
  48. Buchanan DL, Nolan J, Suddaby P, Rouse JE, Viljoen MJ, Davenport JWJ (1981) The genesis of sulfide mineralization in a portion of the Potgietersrus limb of the Bushveld Complex. Econ Geol 76:568–579CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Buick IS, Maas R, Gibson R (2001) Precise U–Pb titanite age constraints on the emplacement of the Bushveld Complex, South Africa. J Geol Soc Lond 158:3–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Buntin TJ, Granstaff DE, Ulmer GC, Gold DP (1985) A pilot study of geochemical and redox relationships between potholes and adjacent Merensky Reef on the Bushveld Complex. Econ Geol 80:975–987CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Bursztyn NE, Olivo GR (2010) PGE rich Ni–Cu sulfide mineralization in the Flin Flon greenstone belt, Manitoba, Canada: implications for hydrothermal remobilization of platinum-group elements in basic–ultrabasic sequences. Econ Geol 105:1469–1490CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Button A (1976) Stratigraphy and relations of the Bushveld floor in the eastern Transvaal. Trans Geol Soc S Afr 79:3–12Google Scholar
  53. Cameron EN (1963) Structure and rock sequence of the critical zone of the Eastern Bushveld Complex. Min Soc Am Spec Pap 1:93–107Google Scholar
  54. Cameron EN (1978) The lower zone of the eastern Bushveld Complex in the Olifants River trough. J Petrol 19:437–462CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Cameron EN (1980) Evolution of the lower critical zone, central sector, eastern Bushveld Complex. Econ Geol 75:845–871CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Cameron EN (1982) The upper critical zone of the eastern Bushveld Complex—precursor of the Merensky Reef. Econ Geol 77:1307–1327CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Campbell G (1990) The seismic revolution in gold and platinum prospecting. S Afr Geophys Assoc Yb BPI Geophys Univ Witwatersrand Johannesburg, S Afr:37–45.Google Scholar
  58. Campbell IH (1978) Some problems with the cumulus theory. Lithos 11:311–323CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Campbell IH (1986a) Distribution of orthocumulate textures in the Jimberlana intrusion. J Geol 95:35–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Campbell IH (1986b) A fluid-dynamic model for the potholes of the Merensky Reef. Econ Geol 81:1118–1125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Campbell IH, Naldrett AJ (1979) The influence of silicate:sulfide ratios on the geochemistry of magmatic sulfides. Econ Geol 74:1503–1505CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Campbell IH, Naldrett AJ, Barnes SJ (1983) A model for the origin of the platinum-rich sulfide horizons in the Bushveld and Stillwater Complexes. J Petrol 24:133–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Carr HW, Groves DI, Cawthorn RG (1994) The importance of syn-magmatic deformation in the formation of Merensky Reef potholes in the Bushveld Complex. Econ Geol 89:1398–1410CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Cawthorn RG (1999a) The platinum and palladium resources of the Bushveld Complex. S Afr J Sci 95:481–489Google Scholar
  65. Cawthorn RG (1999b) The discovery of the platiniferous Marensky Reef in 1924. S Afr J Geol 102:178–183Google Scholar
  66. Cawthorn RG (2002) Magma mixing models for Merensky-style mineralization: the fallacy of binary diagrams. Econ Geol 97:663–665CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Cawthorn RG (2005) Pressure fluctuations and the formation of the PGE rich Merensky and chromitite reefs, Bushveld Complex. Mineralium Deposita 40:231–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Cawthorn RG, Ashwal LD (2009) Origin of anorthosite and magnetite layers in the Bushveld Complex, constrained by major element compositions of plagioclase. J Petrol 50:1607–1637CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Cawthorn RG, Boerst K (2006) Origin of pegmatitic pyroxenite in the Merensky Unit, Bushveld Complex, South Africa. J Petrol 47:1509–1530CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Cawthorn RG, McCarthy TS (1980) Variations in Cr content of magnetite from the Upper Zone of the Bushveld Complex—evidence for heterogeneity and convection currents in magma chambers. Earth Planet Sci Lett 46:335–343CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Cawthorn RG, Molyneux T (1986) Vanadiferous magnetite deposits of the Bushveld Complex. In: Anhaeusser, CR Maske, S (eds) Mineral deposits of Southern Africa. Geol Soc S Afr Johannesburg: 1251–1266Google Scholar
  72. Cawthorn RG, Walraven F (1998) Emplacement and crystallization time for the Bushveld Complex. J Petrol 39:1669–1687CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Cawthorn RG, Davies G, Clubley-Armstrong A, McCarthy TS (1981) Sills associated with the Bushveld Complex, South Africa. Lithos 14:1–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Cawthorn RG, Barton JR, Viljoen MJ (1985) Interaction of floor rocks with the Platreef on Overysel, Potgietersrus, northern Transvaal. Econ Geol 80:988–1006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Cawthorn RG, Meyer PS, Kruger J (1991) Major addition of magma at the Pyroxenite Marker in the western Bushveld Complex, South Africa. J Petrol 32:739–763CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Cawthorn RG, Cooper GRJ, Webb SJ (1998) Connectivity between the western and eastern limbs of the Bushveld Complex. S Afr J Geol 101:291–298Google Scholar
  77. Cawthorn RG, Merkle RKW, Viljoen MJ (2002) Platinum-group element deposits in the Bushveld Complex, South Africa. In: Cabri LJ (ed) The geology, geochemistry, mineralogy and mineral beneficiation of platinum-group elements. Can Inst Min Metall Spec 54:389–429Google Scholar
  78. Chambers AD, Brown PE (1995) Lilloise Intrusion, East Greenland: fractionation of a hydrous alkali picritic magma. J Petrol 36:933–963CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Charlier B, Namur O, Toplis MJ, Schiano P, Cluzel N, Higgins MD, Vander Auwera J (2011) Large-scale silicate liquid immiscibility during differentiation of tholeiitic basalt to granite and the origin of the Daly gap. Geology 39:907–910CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Chung H-Y, Mungall JE (2009) Physical constraints on the migration of immiscible fluids through partially molten silicates, with special reference to magmatic sulfide ores. Earth Planet Sci Lett 286:14–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Clarke B, Uken R, Reinhardt J (2009) Structural and compositional constraints on the emplacement of the Bushveld Complex, South Africa. Lithos 111:21–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Coertze FJ (1958) Intrusive relationship and ore deposits in the western part of the Bushveld igneous Complex. Trans Geol Soc S Afr 61:387–392Google Scholar
  83. Coertze FJ, Burger AJ, Walraven F, Marlow AG, McCaskie DR (1978) Field relations and age determinations in the Bushveld Complex. Trans Geol Soc S Afr 81:1–11Google Scholar
  84. Cousins CA (1959) The structure of the mafic portion of the Bushveld igneous complex. Trans Geol Soc S Afr 62:179–189Google Scholar
  85. Cousins CA (1964) The platinum deposits of the Merensky Reef. In: Haughton SH (ed) The geology of some ore deposits in southern Africa, vol 2. Geol Soc S Afr Johannesburg: 225–237Google Scholar
  86. Cousins CA, Feringa G (1964) The chromite deposits of the western belt of the Bushveld Complex. In: Haughton, SH (ed) The geology of some ore deposits in Southern Africa, vol. 2. Geol Soc S Afr, Johannesburg:183–202Google Scholar
  87. Crowson P (2001) Mineral handbook 2000–2001. Mining Journal Books, Edenbridge, p 486Google Scholar
  88. Curl EA (2001) Parental magmas of the Bushveld Complex, South Africa. Ph.D. thesis, Monash University, Australia, p 140Google Scholar
  89. Czamanske GK, Zientek ML (1985) The Stillwater Complex, Montana: geology and guide. Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology. Spec Pub 92:396Google Scholar
  90. Davies G, Tredoux M (1985) The platinum-group element and gold contents of the marginal rocks and sills of the Bushveld Complex. Econ Geol 80:838–848CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Davies G, Cawthorn RG, Barton JM, Morton M (1980) Parental magma to the Bushveld Complex. Nature 287:33–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. De Klerk WJ (1992) Petrogenesis of the Upper Critical Zone of the Western Bushveld Complex with emphasis on the UG1 footwall and Bastard Units. Ph.D. thesis, Rhodes University, Grahamstown: 294 ppGoogle Scholar
  93. De Waal SA (1975) The mineralogy, chemistry, and certain aspects of reactivity of chromitite from the Bushveld Complex. National Institute for Metallurgy Report 1709, JohannesburgGoogle Scholar
  94. De Waal SA, Armstrong RA (2000) The age of the Marble Hall diorite, its relationship to the Uitkomst Complex, and evidence for a new magma type associated with the Bushveld igneous event. S Afr J Geol 103:128–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Eales HV (2002) Caveats in defining the magmas parental to the mafic rocks of the Bushveld Complex, and the manner of their emplacement: review and commentary. Mineralog Mag 66:815–832CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Eales HV, Cawthorn RG (1996) The Bushveld Complex. In: Cawthorn RG (ed) Layered intrusions. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 181–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Eales HV, Costin G (2012) Crustally contaminated komatiite: primary source of the chromitites and Marginal, Lower, and Critical Zone magmas in a staging chamber beneath the Bushveld Complex. Econ Geol 107:645–665CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Eales HV, Marsh JS, Mitchell AA, De Klerk WJ, Kruger FJ, Field M (1986) Some geochemical constraints upon models for the crystallization of the Upper Critical Zone–Main Zone interval, northwestern Bushveld Complex. Mineralog Mag 50:567–582CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Eales HV, Field M, de Klerk WJ, Scoon RN (1988) Regional trends of chemical variation and thermal erosion in the Upper Critical Zone, western Bushveld Complex. Mineralog Mag 52:63–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Eales HV, De Klerk WJ, Teigler B (1990) Evidence for magma mixing processes within the critical and lower zones of the northwestern Bushveld Complex, South Africa. Chem Geol 88:261–278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Edou-Minko A, Grandin G, Campiglio C (2002) Petrologie et geomorphologie dans la region de Kango, Gabon: un grand dyke ultramafique-mafique Archeen. J Afr Earth Sci 32:899–918Google Scholar
  102. Emeleus CH (1986) The Rhum layered complex, inner Hebrides, Scotland. In: Parsons I (ed) Origins of igneous layering. D Reidel, Dordrecht, pp 263–286Google Scholar
  103. Emerman SH (1991) Correlation of a dyke swarn in southeastern Botswana with the Pilanesberg dyke swarm, South Africa. J Afr Earth Sci 12:525–531CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Emslie RF (1965) The Michikamau anorthositic intrusion, Labrador. Can J Earth Sci 2:385–399CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Fiorentini ML, Barnes SJ, Maier WD, Heggie GJ (2011) Global variability in the PGE contents of komatiites. J Petrol 52:82–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Francis D, Ludden J (1995) The signature of amphibole in mafic alkaline lavas, a study in the northern Canadian Cordillera. J Petrol 36:1171–1191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Freestone IC (1978) Liquid immiscibility in alkali-rich magmas. Chem Geol 23:116–123Google Scholar
  108. Gain SB (1985) The geologic setting of the platiniferous UG2 chromitite layer on Maandagshoek, eastern Bushveld Complex. Econ Geol 80:925–943CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Gain SB, Mostert AB (1982) The geologic setting of the platinoid and base metal sulfide mineralization in the Platreef of the Bushveld Complex on Drenthe, north of Potgietersrus. Econ Geol 77:1395–1404CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Gauert CDK (1998) The petrogenesis of the Uitkomst Complex, Mpumalanga Province, South Africa. Ph.D. thesis, Univ Pretoria: 315ppGoogle Scholar
  111. Gauert CDK, de Waal SA, Wallmach T (1995) Geology of the ultrabasic to basic Uitkomst Complex, estarn Transvaal, South Africa: an overview. J Afr Earth Sci 21:553–570Google Scholar
  112. Godel B, Barnes S-J, Maier WD (2006) 3-D distribution of sulphide minerals in the Merensky Reef (Bushveld Complex, South Africa) and the J-M reef (Stillwater Complex, USA) and their relationship to microstructures using X-ray computed tomography. J Petrol 47:1853–1872CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Godel B, Barnes S-J, Maier WD (2007) The Merensky Reef of the Bushveld Complex, South Africa: a mass balance of platinum group elements in sulfide minerals, platinum group minerals and the whole rock. J Petrol 48:1569–1604CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Godel B, Barnes S-J, Maier WD (2011) Parental magma composition inferred from in situ trace elements in cumulus and intercumulus silicate minerals: example from the lower and lower critical zones of the Bushveld Complex (South-Africa). Lithos 125:537–552CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Griffin WL, Graham S, O’Reilly SY, Pearson NJ (2004) Lithosphere evolution beneath the Kaapvaal Craton: Re–Os systematics of sulfides in mantle-derived peridotites. Chem Geol 208:89–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Groves DI, Ho SE, Rock NMS, Barley ME, Muggeridge MT (1987) Archean cratons, diamond and platinum: evidence for coupled long-lived crust–mantle systems. Geology 15:801–805CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Groves DI, Vielreicher RM, Goldfarb RJ, Condie KC (2005) Controls on the heterogenous distribution of mineral deposits through time. Geol Soc Lond Spec Pub 248:71–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Gurney JJ, Helmstaedt HH, LeRoex AP, Nowicki TE, Richardson SH, Westerlund KJ (2005). Diamonds: crustal distribution and formation processes in time and space and an integrated deposit model. Econ Geol 100th Anniv Vol: 143–177Google Scholar
  119. Hahn UF, Ovendale B (1994) UG2 chromitite layer potholes at Wildebeestfontein North Mine, Impala Platinum Limited, XVth CMMI Congress, Johannesburg. S Afr Inst Min Metall 3:195–200Google Scholar
  120. Halkoaho TAA (1994) The Sompujärvi and Ala-Penikka PGE reefs in the Penikat layered intrusion, northern Finland. Acta Universitatis Ouluensis Ser A 249:122Google Scholar
  121. Halkoaho TAA, Alapieti TT, Lahtinen JJ (1990a) The Sompujärvi PGE reef in the Penikat layered intrusion, northern Finland. Mineral Petrol 42:39–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Halkoaho TAA, Alapieti TT, Lahtinen JJ (1990b) The Ala-Penikka PGE reefs in the Penikat layered intrusion, northern Finland. Mineral Petrol 42:23–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Hall AL (1932) The Bushveld igneous complex in the central Transvaal. Geol Soc S Afr Mem 28:544Google Scholar
  124. Hamilton PJ (1977) Sr isotope and trace element studies of the Great Dyke and Bushveld mafic phase and their relation to early Proterozoic magma genesis in southern Africa. J Petrol 18:24–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Hamlyn PR, Keays RR (1986) Sulfur saturation and second stage melts: application to the Bushveld platinum metal deposits. Econ Geol 81:1431–1445CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Harmer RE (2004) The Volspruit PGE-Ni reef: platinum mineralization in the Lower Zone south of Mokopane (Potgietersrus), South Africa. Geoscience Africa, Johannesburg, Abstracts:256–257Google Scholar
  127. Harmer RE, Armstrong RA (2000) Duration of Bushveld (sensu lato) magmatism: constraints from new SHRIMP zircon chronology. Abstract, Workshop on the Bushveld Complex, Gethlane Lodge, BurgersfortGoogle Scholar
  128. Harmer RE, Sharpe MR (1985) Field relation and strontium isotope systematics of the marginal rocks of the eastern Bushveld Complex. Econ Geol 80:813–837CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Harmer RE, Auret JM, Eglington BM (1995) Lead isotope variations within the Bushveld complex, South Africa: a reconnaissance study. J Afr Earth Sci 21:595–606CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Harney DMW, Merkle RKW, von Gruenewaldt G (1990) Platinum-group element behaviour in the lower part of the Upper Zone, eastern Bushveld Complex—implications for the formation of the Main Magnetite Layer. Econ Geol 85:1777–1789CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Harper MP (2004) Platinum group element mineralization in “Ballrooms” of the J-M reef of the Stillwater Complex, Montana. MSc thesis, Brigham Young University: 54ppGoogle Scholar
  132. Harris C, Chaumba JB (2001) Crustal contamination and fluid–rock interaction during the formation of the Platreef, northern limb of the Bushveld Complex, South Africa. J Petrol 42:1321–1347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Harris C, Pronost JJM, Ashwal LD, Cawthorn RG (2004) Oxygen and hydrogen isotope stratigraphy of the Rustenburg layered suite, Bushveld Complex: constraints on crustal contamination. J Petrol 46:579–601CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Hart SR, Kinloch ED (1989) Os isotope systematics in Witwatersrand and Bushveld ore deposits. Econ Geol 84:1651–1655CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Hatton CJ, Schweitzer JK (1995) Evidence for synchronous extrusive and intrusive Bushvekld magmatism. J Afr Earth Sci 21:579–594CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Hatton CJ, von Gruenewaldt G (1990) Early Precambrian layered intrusions: a review. Inst Geol Res Bushveld Complex Research Rep 83:53Google Scholar
  137. He B, Xu Y-B, Huang X-L, Luo Z-Y, Shi Y-R, Yang Q-J, Yu S-Y (2007) Age and duration of the Emeishan flood volcanism, SW China: geochemistry and SHRIMP zircon U–Pb dating of silicic ignimbrites, post-volcanic Xuanwei Formation and clay tuff at the Chaotian section. Earth Planet Sci Lett 255:306–323CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Heckroodt RO (1959) The geology around the dunite pipe on Driekop (Eastern Transvaal). Trans Geol Soc S Afr 62:59–73Google Scholar
  139. Helz RT (1985) Compositions of fine grained mafic rocks from sills and dykes associated with the Stillwater Complex. In: Czamanske GK, Zientek ML (eds) The Stillwater Complex, Montana: geology and guide. Montana Bur Mines Geol Spec Pub 92:396ppGoogle Scholar
  140. Herzberg C, Asimov PD, Arndt NT, Niu Y, Lesher CM, Fitton JG, Cheadle MJ, Saunders AD (2007) Temperatures in ambient mantle and plumes: constraints from basalts, picrites, and komatiites. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems 8, Q02006, doi:10.1029/2006GC001390
  141. Hiemstra SA (1986) The distribution of chalcophile and platinum-group elements in the UG2 chromitite layer of the Bushveld Complex. Econ Geol 81:1080–1086CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Hirschmann MM, Renne PR, McBirney AR (1997) 40Ar/39Ar dating of the Skaergaard intrusion. Earth Planet Sci Lett 146:645–658CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Holness MB, Stripp G, Humphreys CS, Veksler IV, Nielsen TFD, Tegner C (2011) Silicate liquid immiscibility within the crystal mush: late stage magmatic microstructures in the Skaergaard Intrusion, East Greenland. J Petrol 52:175–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Holwell DA, McDonald I (2006) Petrology, geochemistry, and the mechanisms determining the distribution of platinum-group element and base metal sulfide mineralization in the Platreef at Overysel, northern Bushveld Complex, South Africa. Min Dep 41:575–598CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Holwell DA, Armitage PEB, McDonald I (2005) Observations on the relationship between the Platreef and its hangingwall. Trans Instit Min Metal 114:199–207Google Scholar
  146. Holwell DA, Boyce AJ, McDonald I (2007) Sulfur isotope variations within the Platreef Ni-Cu-PGE deposit: genetic implications for the origin of sulfide mineralization. Econ Geol 102:1091–1110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Holzer L, Barton JR, Paya BK, Kramers JD (1999) Tectonothermal history in the western part of the Limpopo Belt: test of the tectonic models and new perspectives. J Afr Earth Sci 28:383–402CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Howell PD, van der Pluijm BA (1999) Structural sequences and style of subsidence in the Michigan basin. Geol Soc Am Bull 111:974–991Google Scholar
  149. Hulbert LJ (1983) A petrological investigation of the Rustenburg layered suite and associated mineralization south of Potgietersrus. Ph.D. thesis, University of Pretoria, 501 ppGoogle Scholar
  150. Hulbert LJ, von Gruenewaldt G (1982) Nickel, copper, and platinum mineralization in the Lower Zone of the Bushveld Complex, south of Potgietersrus. Econ Geol 77:1296–1306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Iljina MJ, Lee CA (2005) PGE deposits in the marginal series of layered intrusions. In: Mungall JE (ed) Exploration for platinum group element deposits. Mineralog Assoc Can Short Course Series 35: 75–96Google Scholar
  152. Ireland KL (1986) The Winterveld Chrome Mine Limited, eastern Bushveld Complex, In: Anhaeusser CR, Maske S (eds) Mineral deposits of Southern Africa. Geol Soc S Afr Johannesburg 1183–1188Google Scholar
  153. Irvine TN (1970) Crystallization sequences in the Muskox intrusion and other layered intrusions. 1. Olivine–pyroxene–plagioclase relations. 441–476. In: Visser DJL, von Gruenewaldt G (eds) Symposium on the Bushveld igneous complex and other layered intrusions. Geol Soc S Afr Spec Pub, 1Google Scholar
  154. Irvine TN (1975) Crystallization sequences in the Muskox intrusion and other layered intrusions—II. Origin of chromitite layers and similar deposits of other magmatic ores. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 39:991–1020CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Irvine TN (1980) Infiltration metasomatism, adcumulus growth, and double diffusive fractional crystallization in the Muskox intrusion and other layered intrusions. In: Hargaves RB (ed) Physics of magmatic processes. Princeton University Press, Princeton, pp 325–383Google Scholar
  156. Irvine TN (1986) Layering and related structures in the Duke Island and Skaergaard intrusions: similarities, differences and origins. In: Parson I (ed) Origins of igneous layering. D Reidel, Dordrecht, pp 185–246Google Scholar
  157. Irvine TN, Keith DW, Todd SG (1983) The J-M platinum–palladium reef of the Stillwater Complex, Montana II: origin by double-diffusive convective magma mixing and implications for the Bushveld Complex. Econ Geol 78:1287–1334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Irvine TN, Andersen JCO, Brooks CK (1998) Included blocks (and blocks within blocks) in the Skaergaard intrusion: geological relations and the origins of rhythmic modally graded layers. Geol Soc Amer Bull 110:1398–1447CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Jackson ED (1961) Primary textures and mineral associations in the ultramafic zone of the Stillwater Complex, Montana. US Geol Surv Prof Pap 358:1–106Google Scholar
  160. Jakobsen JK, Veksler IV, Tegner C, Brooks CK (2005) Immiscible iron- and silica-rich melts in basalt petrogenesis documented in the Skaergaard intrusion. Geology 33:885–888CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Kazanov OV, Kalinin A (2008) The structure and PGE mineralization of the east Pansky layered Massif. Strategic mineral resources of Lapland-base for the sustainable development of the North. Interreg-Tacis Project, Apatity, Russia, 57–68Google Scholar
  162. Keays RR, Lightfoot PC, Hamlyn PR (2010) Sulphide saturation history of the Stillwater Complex, Montana: chemostratigraphic variation in platinum group elements. Abstr 11th Platinum Symposium, Sudbury, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  163. Keays RR, Lightfoot PC, Hamlyn PR (2011) Sulfide saturation history of the Stillwater Complex, Montana: chemostratigraphic variation in platinum group elements. Miner Deposita. doi:10.1007/s00126-011-0346-7
  164. Kersey DG, Hsü KJ (1976) Energy relations and density current flows: an experimental investigation. Sedimentology 23:761–790CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Kinloch ED (1982) Regional trends in the platinum-group mineralogy of the critical zone of the Bushveld Complex, South Africa. Econ Geol 77:1328–1347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Kinnaird JA, Hutchinson D, Schurmann L, Nex PAM, De Lange R (2005) Petrology and mineralization of the southern Platreef: northern limb of the Bushveld Complex, South Africa. Mineralium Deposita 40:576–597CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Klemm DD, Henckel J, Dehm R, von Gruenewaldt G (1985) The geochemistry of titanomagnetite in magnetite layers and their host rocks of the eastern Bushveld Complex. Econ Geol 80:1075–1088CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Kruger FJ (1990) The stratigraphy of the Bushveld Complex: a reappraisal and relocation of the Main Zone boundaries. S Afr J Geol 93:376–381Google Scholar
  169. Kruger FJ (1992) The origin of the Merensky cyclic unit: Sr isotopic and mineralogical evidence for an alternative orthomagmatic model. Austr J Earth Sci 39:255–261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Kruger FJ (1994) The Sr-isotopic stratigraphy of the western Bushveld Complex. S Afr J Geol 97:393–398Google Scholar
  171. Kruger FJ, Marsh JS (1985) The mineralogy, petrology and origin of the Merensky cyclic unit in the western Bushveld Complex. Econ Geol 80:958–974CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Lambert DD, Simmons EC (1987) Magma evolution in the Stillwater Complex, Montana: I. Rare earth element evidence for the formation of the ultramafic series. American J Sci 287:1–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Lambert DD, Simmons EC (1988) Magma evolution in the Stillwater Complex, Montana: II. Rare earth element evidence for the formation of the J-M reef. Econ Geol 83:1109–1126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Lambert DD, Walker RJ, Morgan JW, Shirey SB, Carlson RW, Zientek ML, Lipin BR, Koski MS, Cooper RL (1994) Re–Os and Sm–Nd isotope geochemistry of the Stillwater Complex, Montana: implications for the petrogenesis of the J-M reef. J Petrol 35:1717–1753CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Lambert DD, Shirey SB, Bergman SC (1995) Proterozoic lithospheric mantle source for the Prairie Creek lamproites: Re–Os and Sm–Nd isotopic evidence. Geology 23:273–276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Latypov RM (2003) The origin of marginal compositional reversals in basic–ultrabasic sills and layered intrusions by Soret fractionation. J Petrol 44:1579–1618CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Lee CA (1981) Post depositional structures in the Bushveld Complex mafic sequence. J Geol Soc 138:327–341CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Lee CA (1983) Trace and platinum-group element geochemistry and the development of the Merensky Unit of the western Bushveld Complex. Min Deposita 18:173–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Lee CA (1996) A review of mineralization in the Bushveld Complex and some other layered intrusions. In: Cawthorn RG (ed) Layered intrusions. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 103–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Lee CA, Butcher AR (1990) Cyclicity in the Sr isotope stratigraphy through the Merensky and Bastard Reefs, Atok Section, eastern Bushveld Complex. Econ Geol 85:877–883CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Lee CA, Parry SJ (1988) Platinum-group element geochemistry of the lower and middle group chromitites of the eastern Bushveld Complex. Econ Geol 83:1127–1139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Lee CA, Tredoux M (1986) Platinum-group element abundances in the lower and the lower critical zones of the eastern Bushveld Complex. Econ Geol 81:1087–1095CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Leeb-du Toit A (1986) The Impala Platinum Mines. In: Anhaeusser CR, Maske S (eds) Mineral deposits of Southern Africa. Geol Soc S Afr Johannesburg, 1091–1106.Google Scholar
  184. Lesher CM, Burnham OM (2001) Multicomponent elemental and isotopic mixing in Ni–Cu–(PGE) ores at Kambalda, Western Australia. Can Mineralogist 39:421–446CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Letts S, Torsvik TH, Webb S, Ashwal LD (2009) Palaeomagnetism of the 2054 Ga Bushveld Complex (South Africa): implications for emplacement and cooling. Geophys J Int 179:850–872CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Li C, Ripley EM (2005) Empirical equations to predict the sulfide content of mafic magmas at sulfide saturation and applications to magmatic sulfide deposits. Mineralium Deposita 40:218–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Li C, Ripley EM, Maier WD, Gomwe TE (2002) Olivine and sulfur isotopic compositions of the Uitkomst sulfide-bearing intrusion, South Africa: evidence for sulfur contamination and multiple magma emplacements. Chem Geol 188:149–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Li C, Ripley EM, Oberthür T, Miller JD Jr, Joslin GD (2008) Textural, mineralogical and stable isotope studies of hydrothermal alteration in the main sulfide zone of the Great Dyke, Zimbabwe and the precious metals zone of the Sonju Lake Intrusion, Minnesota, USA. Mineral Dep 43:97–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Liebenberg L (1970) The sulfides in the layered sequence of the Bushveld igneous complex. Geol Soc S Afr Spec Pub 1:108–208Google Scholar
  190. Lipin BR (1993) Pressure increases, the formation of chromite seams, and the development of the ultramafic series in the Stillwater Complex, Montana. J Petrol 34:955–976CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Locmelis M, Pearson NJ, Barnes SJ, Fiorentini ML (2011) Ruthenium in komatiitic chromite. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 75:3645–3661CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. London (2008) Pegmatites. Can Min Spec Pub 10:374Google Scholar
  193. Lorand J-P, Gregoire M (2006) Petrogenesis of base metal sulphide assemblages of some peridotites from the Kaapvaal craton (South Africa). Contrib Mineral Petrol 151:521–538CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Luguet A, Shirey SB, Lorand J-P, Horan MF, Carlson RW (2007) Residual platinum-group minerals from highly depleted harzburgites of the Lherz massif (France) and their role in HSE fractionation of the mantle. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 71:3082–3097CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. Mahoney JJ, Coffin MF (eds) (1997) Large igneous provinces: continental, oceanic and, planetary flood volcanism. AGU Geophysical Monograph, 100Google Scholar
  196. Maier WD (2002) Concentrations of the PGE in the Platreef on the farm Townlands, northern Bushveld Complex. Abstr, 9th International Platinum Symposium, Billings, USAGoogle Scholar
  197. Maier WD (2005) Platinum-group element (PGE) deposits and occurrences: mineralization styles, genetic concepts, and exploration criteria. J Afr Earth Sci 41:165–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Maier WD, Barnes S-J (1998) Concentrations of rare earth elements in silicate rocks of the Lower, Critical and Main zones of the Bushveld Complex. Chem Geol 150:85–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Maier WD, Barnes S-J (1999) Platinum-group elements in silicate rocks of the Lower, Critical, and Main zones at Union Section, western Bushveld Complex. J Petrol 40:1647–1671CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Maier WD, Barnes S-J (2003) Platinum-group elements in the Boulder Bed, western Bushveld Complex, South Africa. Mineral Deposita 38:370–380Google Scholar
  201. Maier WD, Barnes S-J (2004) Pt/Pd and Pd/Ir ratios in mantle-derived magmas: a possible role for mantle metasomatism. S Afr J Geol 107:333–340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. Maier WD, Barnes S-J (2008) Platinum-group elements in the UG1 and UG2 chromitites and the Bastard reef at Impala platinum mine, western Bushveld Complex. S Afr J Geol 111:159–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. Maier WD, Barnes S-J (2010) The petrogenesis of PGE reefs in the Upper Main Zone of the northern lobe of the Bushveld Complex on the farm Moorddrift, South Africa. Econ Geol 105:841–854CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. Maier WD, Eales HV (1997) Correlation within the UG2–Merensky Reef interval of the Western Bushveld Complex, based on geochemical, mineralogical and petrological data. Geol Surv S Afr Bull 120:56Google Scholar
  205. Maier WD, Groves DI (2011) Temporal and spatial controls on the formation of magmatic PGE and Ni–Cu deposits. Min Deposita 46:841–857CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. Maier WD, Teigler B (1995) A facies model for the Western Bushveld Complex. Econ Geol 90:2343–2349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. Maier WD, Prichard HM, Barnes S-J, Fisher PC (1999) Compositional variation of laurite at Union Section in the western Bushveld Complex. S Afr J Geol 102:286–292Google Scholar
  208. Maier WD, Arndt NT, Curl EA (2000) Progressive crustal contamination of the Bushveld Complex: evidence from Nd isotopic analyses of the cumulate rocks. Contrib Mineral Petrol 140:316–327CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. Maier WD, Barnes S-J, van der Merwe MJ (2001) The concentrations of PGE in the Pyroxenite Marker, Bushveld Complex: implications for the formation of the Main Zone. S Afr J Geol 104:335–342Google Scholar
  210. Maier WD, Barnes S-J, Gartz V, Andrews G (2003) Pt–Pd reefs in magnetitites of the Stella layered intrusion, South Africa: a world of new exploration opportunities for platinum-group elements. Geology 31:885–888CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. Maier WD, de Klerk L, Blaine J, Manyeruke T, Barnes S-J, Stevens MVA, Mavrogenes JA (2008a) Petrogenesis of contact-style PGE mineralization in the northern lobe of the Bushveld Complex: comparison of data from the farms Rooipoort, Townlands, Drenthe and Nonnenwerth. Mineral Deposita 43:255–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. Maier WD, Teigler B, Miller R (2008b) The Kunene anorthosite complex and its satellite intrusions. In: RMcG Miller (ed) The geology of Namibia. Geol Surv Namibia, 9–1 to 9–18Google Scholar
  213. Maier WD, Barnes SJ, Campbell IH, Fiorentini ML, Peltonen P, Barnes S-J, Smithies RH (2009) Progressive mixing of meteoritic veneer into the early Earth’s deep mantle. Nature 460:620–623CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. Maier WD, Peltonen P, McDonald I, Barnes SJ, Barnes S-J, Hatton C, Viljoen F (2012a) The platinum-group element budget of the Kaapvaal and Karelian sub-continental lithospheric mantle: implications for mantle evolution. Chem Geol 302–303:119–135Google Scholar
  215. Maier WD, Rasmussen B, Fletcher I, Yang S (2012b) Direct precipitation of Pt alloys from basaltic magma in the 2.77 Ga Monts de Cristal Complex, Gabon. Abstr, 12th Int Ni–Cu–PGE symposium, GuiyangGoogle Scholar
  216. Manyeruke T, Maier WD, Barnes S-J (2005) Major and trace element geochemistry of the Platreef on the farm Townlands, northern Bushveld Complex. S Afr J Geol 108:379–394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. Maré LP, Cole J (2006) The Trompsburg Complex, South Africa: a preliminary three dimensional model. J Afr Earth Sci 44:314–330Google Scholar
  218. Marsh JS, Bowen MP, Rogers NW, Bowen TB (1992) Petrogenesis of Late Archean flood-type basic lavas from the Klipriviersberg group, Ventersdorp Supergroup, South Africa. J Petrol 33:817–847CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. Mathez EA, Mey JL (2005) Character of the UG2 chromitite and host rocks and petrogenesis of its pegmatoidal footwall, northeastern Bushveld Complex. Econ Geol 100:1617–1630CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. Mathez EA, Waight TE (2003) Lead isotopic disequilibrium between sulfide and plagioclase in the Bushveld Complex and the chemical evolution of large layered intrusions. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 67:1875–1888CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. McBirney A (1975) Differentiation of the skaergaard intrusion. Nature 253:691–694Google Scholar
  222. McBirney AR, Hunter RH (1995) The cumulate paradigm reconsidered. J Geol 103:114–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. McBirney AR, Noyes RM (1979) Crystallization and layering of the Skaergaard intrusion. J Petrol 20:487–554CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. McCandless TE, Ruiz J (1991) Osmium isotopes and crustal sources for platinum-group mineralization in the Bushveld Complex, South Africa. Geology 19:1225–1228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. McCarthy TS, Cawthorn RG, Wright CJ, McIver JR (1985) Mineral layering in the Bushveld Complex: implications of Cr abundances in magnetite from closely spaced magnetite and intervening silicate rich layers. Econ Geol 80:1062–1074CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. McDonald I, Holwell DA (2011) Geology of the northern Bushveld Complex and the setting and genesis of the Platreef Ni–Cu–PGE deposit. In Li C, Ripley EM (eds) Magmatic Ni–Cu and PGE deposits: geology, geochemistry, and genesis. Rev Econ Geol 17:297–327Google Scholar
  227. McDonald I, De Wit MJ, Smith CB, Bizzi LA, Viljoen KS (1995) The geochemistry of the platinum-group elements in Brazilian and southern African kimberlites. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 59:2883–2903CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. McDonald I, Ohnenstetter D, Rowe JP, Tredoux M, Pattrick RAD, Vaughan DJ (1999) Platinum precipitation in the Waterberg deposit, Naboomspruit, South Africa. S Afr J Geol 102:184–191Google Scholar
  229. McDonald I, Holwell DA, Armitage PEB (2005) Geochemistry and mineralogy of the Platreef and critical zone of the northern lobe of the Bushveld Complex, South Africa: implications for Bushveld stratigraphy and the development of PGE mineralization. Miner Deposita 40:526–549CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. McInnes BIA, McBride JS, Evans NJ, Lambert DD, Andrew AS (1999) Osmium isotope constraints on metal recycling in subduction zones. Science 286:512–516CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. Merensky H (1926) Die neuentdeckten Platinfelder im mittleren Transvaal, und ihre wissenschaftliche Bedeutung. Berliner Zeitschr Deut Geol Gesell 78:298–314Google Scholar
  232. Miller JD Jr, Andersen JCO (2002) Attributes of Skaergaard-type reefs. In: Boudreau A (ed) Extended abstracts. 9th Int Platinum Symposium, Billings, Montana, 305–308Google Scholar
  233. Miller JD, Green JC, Severson MJ, Chandler VW, Hauck SA, Peterson DM, Wahl TE (2002) Geology and mineral potential of the Duluth Complex and related rocks of northeastern Minnesota. Minnesota Geol Surv Report 58:207 pGoogle Scholar
  234. Mitchell AA (1986) The petrology, mineralogy and geochemistry of the Main Zone of the Bushveld Complex at Rustenburg Platinum Mine, Union Section. Ph.D. thesis, Rhodes University, Grahamstown, 157ppGoogle Scholar
  235. Mitchell AA (1996) Compositional cyclicity in a pyroxenitic layer from the Main Zone of the western Bushveld Complex: evidence for repeated magma influx. Min Mag 60:149–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. Mitchell AA, Scoon RN (2007) The Merensky Reef at Winnaarshoek, eastern Bushveld Complex: a primary magmatic hypothesis based on a wide reef facies. Econ Geol 102:971–1009CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  237. Molyneux TG (1970) A geological investigation of the Bushveld Complex in Sekhukhuneland and part of the Steelpoort Valley, eastern Transvaal, with particular reference to the oxide minerals. D.Sc. thesis, University of Pretoria, Pretoria.Google Scholar
  238. Molyneux TG (1974) A geological investigation of the Bushveld Complex in Sekhukuneland and part of the Steelpoort valley. Trans Geol Soc S Afr 77:329–338Google Scholar
  239. Mondal SK, Mathez EA (2007) Origin of the UG2 chromitite layer, Bushveld Complex. J Petrol 48:495–510CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. Morse SA (1988) Motion of crystals, solute and heat in layered intrusions. Can Mineralogist 26:209–224Google Scholar
  241. Mossom RJ (1986) The Atok Platinum Mine. In: Anhaeusser, C.R., Maske, S (eds) Mineral deposits of Southern Africa Geol Soc S Afr, Johannesburg 1143–1154Google Scholar
  242. Mutanen T (1997) Geology and petrology of the Akanvaara and Koitelainen mafic layered intrusions and Keivitsa–Satovaara layered complex, northern Finland. Geol Surv Finl Bull 395:233Google Scholar
  243. Mutanen T, Huhma H (2001) U–Pb geochronology of the Koitelainen, Akanvaara and Kevitsa layered intrusions and related rocks. In: Vaasjoki M (ed) Radiometric age determinations from Finnish Lapland and their bearing on the timing of Precambrian volcano-sedimentary sequences. Geol Surv Fin Spec Pap 33:229–246Google Scholar
  244. Nabil H (2003) Genèse des depots de Fe–Ti–P associés aux intrusions litées (exemples: l’intrusion mafique de Sept-Iles, au Québec; Complexe de Duluth aux Etats Unis. Ph.D. thesis, Univ Quebec at Chicoutimi, 441 pGoogle Scholar
  245. Naldrett AJ (2004) Our friend platinum. Geol Soc S Afr Bull 47–2:4–12Google Scholar
  246. Naldrett AJ (2009) Fundamentals of magmatic sulfide deposits. In: Li C, Ripley EM (eds) New developments in magmatic Ni–Cu and PGE deposits. Geol Publ House, 1–26Google Scholar
  247. Naldrett AJ (2010) Secular variation of magmatic sulfide deposits and their source magmas. Econ Geol 105:669–688CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  248. Naldrett AJ, Lehmann J (1988) Spinel non-stoichiometry as the explanation for Ni-, Cu-, and PGE-enriched sulphides in chromitites. In: Pritchard HM, Potts PJ, Bowles JFW, Cribb SJ (eds) Geo-Platinum 87. Elsevier Applied Science, London, pp 113–143Google Scholar
  249. Naldrett AJ, von Gruenewaldt G (1989) Association of platinum-group elements with chromitite in layered intrusions and ophiolite complexes. Econ Geol 84:180–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  250. Naldrett AJ, Gasparrini EC, Barnes SJ, Von Gruenewaldt G, Sharpe MR (1986) The upper critical zone of the Bushveld Complex and the origin of Merensky-type ores. Econ Geol 81:1105–1117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  251. Naldrett AJ, Kinnaird J, Wilson A, Yudovskaya M, McQuade S, Chunnett G, Stanley C (2009a) Chromite composition and PGE content of Bushveld chromitites: part 1—the lower and middle groups. Trans Inst Min Metall B118:131–161Google Scholar
  252. Naldrett AJ, Wilson A, Kinnaird J, Chunnett G (2009b) PGE tenor and metal ratios within and below the Merensky Reef, Bushveld Complex: implications for its genesis. J Petrol 50:625–659CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  253. Naldrett AJ, Wilson A, Kinnaird J, Yudovskaya M, Chunnett G (2012) The origin of chromitites and related PGE mineralization in the Bushveld Complex: new mineralogical and petrological constraints. Min Deposita 47:209–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  254. Naslund HR (1983) The effect of oxygen fugacity on liquid immiscibility in iron-bearing silicate melts. Am J Sci 283:1034–1059CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  255. Naslund HR, McBirney AR (1996) Mechanisms of formation of igneous layering. In: Cawthorn RG (ed) Layered intrusions. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 1–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  256. Nex PAM (2004) Formation of bifurcating chromitite layers of the UG1 in the Bushveld Igneous Complex, an analogy with sand volcanoes. J Geol Soc Lond 161:903–909CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  257. Nicholson DM, Mathez EA (1991) Petrogenesis of the Merensky Reef in the Rustenburg section of the Bushveld Complex. Contrib Mineral Petrol 107:293–309CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  258. O’Driscoll B, Emeleus CH, Donaldson CH, Daly JS (2010) Cr-spinel seam petrogenesis in the Rhum layered suite, NW Scotland: cumulate assimilation and in situ crystallization in a deforming crystal mush. J Petrol 51:1171–1201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  259. Oberthür T (2002) Platinum-group element mineralization of the Great Dyke, Zimbabwe. In: Cabri LJ (ed) The geology, geochemistry, mineralogy and mineral beneficiation of platinum-group elements. Can Inst Min Metall Spec Vol 54:483–506Google Scholar
  260. Olsson JR, Söderlund U, Hamilton MA, Klausen MB, Helffrich GR (2011) A late Archaean radiating dyke swarm as possible clue to the origin of the Bushveld Complex. Nat Geosci 4:865–869CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  261. Oosterhuis WR (1998) Andalusite, sillimanite and kyanite, 53–58. In: Wilson MGC, Anhaeusser CR (eds) The mineral resources of South Africa, handbook. Council for Geoscience, 740ppGoogle Scholar
  262. Page NJ, von Gruenewaldt G, Haffty J, Aruscavage PJ (1982) Comparison of platinum, palladium, and rhodium distributions in some layered intrusions with special reference to the late differentiates (Upper Zone) of the Bushveld Complex, South Africa. Econ Geol 91:439–450Google Scholar
  263. Pagé P, Barnes S-J, Bédard JH, Zientek ML (2012) In situ determination of Os, Ir, and Ru in chromites formed from komatiite, tholeiite and boninite magmas: implications for chromite control of Os, Ir and Ru during partial melting and crystal fractionation. Chemical Geology 302–303:3–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  264. Palme H, Jones A (2005) Solar system abundances of the elements. In: Holland HD, Turekian KK (eds) Meteorites, comets and planets. Treatise on geochemistry, vol 1. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 41–62Google Scholar
  265. Palme H, O’Neill HStC (2004) Cosmochemical estimates of mantle composition. In: Carlson RW (ed) The mantle and core. In: Holland HD, Turekian KK (eds) Treatise on geochemistry, vol. 2. Elsevier, Oxford, pp 1–38Google Scholar
  266. Paterson SR (2009) Magmatic tubes, pipes, troughs, diapirs, and plumes: late-stage convective instabilities resulting in compositional diversity and permeable networks in crystal-rich magmas of the Tuolumne batholith, Sierra Nevada, California. Geosphere 5:496–527CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  267. Pearson DG, Irvine GJ, Ionov DA, Boyd FR, Dreibus GE (2004) Re–Os isotope systematics and platinum-group element fractionation during mantle melt extraction: a study of massif and xenolith peridotite suites. Chem Geol 208:29–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  268. Penniston-Dorland SC, Wing BA, Nex PAM, Kinnaird JA, Farquhar J, Brown M, Sharman ER (2007) Multiple sulfur isotopes reveal a magmatic origin for the Platreef platinum group element deposit, Bushveld Complex, South Africa. Geology 36:979–982CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  269. Penniston-Dorland SC, Farquhar J, Polley GJ, Mathez EA, Kinnaird EA (2011) Can multiple S isotopes be used as a tracer for sub-continental lithospheric mantle in the Bushveld? Abstr. Goldschmidt Conference, Prague.Google Scholar
  270. Philpotts AR (1967) Origin of certain iron–titanium oxide and apatite rocks. Econ Geol 62:303–315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  271. Prendergast M, Wilson AH (1989) The Great Dyke of Zimbabwe II: mineralization and mineral deposits. In: Prendergast MD, Jones MJ (eds) Magmatic sulfides—the Zimbabwe volume. The Institution of Mining and Metallurgy, London, pp 21–42Google Scholar
  272. Prendergast M (1988) An investigation of the stratigraphy and petrology of the pyroxenite no 1 layer in the Wedza Subchamber of the Great Dyke, Zimbabwe, with special reference to the characteristic features and origin of the PGE bearing Main Sulfide Zone. Ph.D. thesis, University of ZimbabweGoogle Scholar
  273. Prendergast M (1991) The Wedza–Mimosa platinum deposit, Great Dyke, Zimbabwe: layering and stratiform PGE mineralization in a narrow mafic magma chamber. Geol Mag 128:235–249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  274. Prendergast M, Keays RR (1989) Controls of platinum-group element mineralization and the origin of the PGE-rich main sulfide zone of the Great Dyke, Zimbabwe: implications for the genesis of, and the exploration for stratiform PGE mineralization in layered intrusions. In: Prendergast MD, Jones MJ (eds) Magmatic sulfides—the Zimbabwe volume. The Institution of Mining and Metallurgy, London, pp 43–69Google Scholar
  275. Prendergast M, Bennett M, Henicke G (1998) Platinum exploration in the Rincon del Tigre Complex, eastern Bolivia. Trans Inst Min Metall 107:B39–47Google Scholar
  276. Prevec SA, Ashwal LD, Mkaza MS (2005) Mineral disequilibrium in the Merensky Reef, western Bushveld Complex, South Africa: new Sm–Nd isotope evidence. Contrib Mineral Petrol 149:306–315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  277. Pronost JJM, Harris C, Pin C (2008) Relationship between footwall contamination, crustal contamination, and fluid–rock interaction in the Platreef, Bushveld Complex, South Africa. Mineral Deposita 43:825–848CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  278. Quadling K, Cawthorn RG (1994) The layered gabbronorite sequence, Main Zone, eastern Bushveld Complex. S Afr J Geol 97:442–454Google Scholar
  279. Raedeke LD, Vian RW (1986) A three-dimensional view of mineralization in the Stillwater J-M reef. Econ Geol 81:1187–1195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  280. Reid DL, Basson IJ (2002) Iron-rich ultramafic pegmatite replacement bodies within the Upper Critical Zone, Rustenburg Layered Suite, Northam Platinum mine, South Africa. Mineral Mag:895–914Google Scholar
  281. Reisberg L, Tredoux M, Harris C, Coftier A, Chaumba J (2011) Re and Os distribution and Os isotope composition of the Platreef at the Sandsloot mine, Bushveld Complex, South Africa. Chem Geol 281:352–363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  282. Reischmann T (1995) Precise U/Pb age determination with baddeleyite (ZrO2), a case study from the Phalaborwa igneous complex, South Africa. S Afr J Geol 98:1–4Google Scholar
  283. Reynolds IM (1985) The nature and origin of titaniferous magnetite-rich layers in the Upper Zone of the Bushveld Complex: a review and synthesis. Econ Geol 80:1089–1108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  284. Reynolds IM (1986) The mineralogy and ore petrology of the Bushveld titaniferous magnetite-rich layers. In: Anhaeusser CR, Maske S (eds) Mineral deposits of southern Africa. Geol Soc S Afr Johannesburg 2:1267–1286.Google Scholar
  285. Richardson SH, Shirey SB (2008) Continental mantle signature of Bushveld magmas and coeval diamonds. Nature 453:910–913CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  286. Richter FM (1988) A major change in the thermal state of the Earth at the Archean–Proterozoic boundary: consequences for the nature and preservation of continental lithosphere. J Petrol Spec Lithosphere issue: 39–52Google Scholar
  287. Robins B (1982) Finger structures in the Lille Kufjord layered intrusion, Finnmark, Northern Norway. Cont Min Petrol 81:290–295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  288. Roedder E (1978) Silicate liquid immiscibility in magmas and in the system K2O-FeO-AI2O3-SiO2: an example of serendipity. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 42:1597–1617Google Scholar
  289. Roelofse F (2010) Constraints on the magmatic evolution of the Lower Main Zone and Platreef on the northern limb of the Bushveld Complex as inferred from the Moordkopje drill core. Ph.D. thesis, University of the Witwatersrand, 155ppGoogle Scholar
  290. Sá HS, Barnes S-J, Prichard HM, Fisher PC (2005) The distribution of base metals and platinum-group elements in magnetitites and their host rocks in the Rio Jacaré intrusion, Northeastern Brazil. Econ Geol 100:333–348Google Scholar
  291. SACS (South African Committee for Stratigraphy) (1980) Kent LE (compiler) Stratigraphy of South Africa. Geol Surv S Afr Pretoria, Handbook, 8, 690ppGoogle Scholar
  292. Sattari P, Brennan JM, Horn I, McDonough WF (2002) Experimental constraints on the sulfide- and chromite–silicate melt partitioning behavior of rhenium and the platinum-group elements. Econ Geol 97:385–398CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  293. Savard D, Barnes S-J, Meisel T (2010) Comparison between nickel–sulfur fire assay Te co-precipitation and isotope dilution with high-pressure asher acid digestion for the determination of PGE Re and gold. Geostandards and Geoanalytical Res 34:281–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  294. Schiffries CM (1982) The petrogenesis of a platiniferous dunite pipe in the Bushveld Complex: infiltration metasomatism by a chloride solution. Econ Geol 77:1439–1453CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  295. Schiffries CM, Rye DM (1989) Stable isotope systematics of the Bushveld Complex: I. Constraints on hydrothermal processes in layered intrusions. Am J Sci 289:841–873CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  296. Schmidt ER (1952) The structure and composition of the Merensky Reef and associated rocks in the Rustenburg platinum mine. Trans Geol Soc S Afr 55:234–279Google Scholar
  297. Schmitz MD, Bowring SA, de Wit MJ, Gartz V (2004) Subduction and terrane collision stabilize the western Kaapvaal craton tectosphere 2.9 billion years ago. Earth Planet Sci Let 222:363–376CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  298. Schönberg R, Kruger FJ, Nägler TF, Meisel T, Kramers JD (1999) PGE enrichment in chromitite layers and the Merensky Reef of the western Bushveld Complex; a Re–Os and Rb–Sr isotope study. Earth Planet Sci Lett 172:49–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  299. Schönberg R, Nägler TF, Gnos E, Kramers JD, Kamber BS (2003) The source of the Great Dyke, Zimbabwe, and its tectonic significance: evidence from Re–Os isotopes. J Geol 111:565–578CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  300. Schwellnus CM (1935) The nickel–copper occurrences in the Bushveld Igneous Complex, west of the Pilanesberg. Geol Surv S Afr Bull 5:36pGoogle Scholar
  301. Scoates JS (2000) The plagioclase–magma density paradox re-examined and the crystallization of Proterozoic anorthosites. J Petrol 41:627–649CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  302. Scoates JS, Friedman RM (2008) Precise age of the platiniferous Merensky Reef, Bushveld Complex, South Africa, by the U–Pb zircon chemical abrasion ID-TIMS technique. Econ Geol 103:465–471CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  303. Scoates JS, Lindsley DH, Frost BR (2010) Magmatic and structural evolution of an anorthositic magma chamber: the Poe Mountain intrusion, Laramie Anorthosite Complex, Wyoming. Can Min 48:851–885CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  304. Scoates JS, Wall CJ, Friedman RM, Chamberlain KR (2011) Revisiting the age of the Merensky Reef, Bushveld Complex. Abstr, Goldschmidt Conference 2011Google Scholar
  305. Scoates JS, Wall CJ, Friedman RM, Vantongeren JA, Mathez EA (2012) The age of the Bushveld Complex. Abstr, Goldschmidt Conference, Montreal, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  306. Scoon RN, Mitchell AA (1994) Discordant iron-rich ultramafic pegmatites in the Bushveld Complex and their relationship to iron-rich intercumulus and residual liquids. J Petrol 35:881–917CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  307. Scoon RN, Mitchell AA (2004) The platiniferous dunite pipes in the eastern limb of the Bushveld Complex: review and comparison with unmineralized discordant ultramafic bodies. S Afr J Geol 107:505–520CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  308. Scoon RN, Mitchell AA (2009) A multi-stage orthomagmatic and partial melting hypothesis for the Driekop Platiniferous Dunite Pipe, eastern limb of the Bushveld Complex, South Africa. S Afr J Geol 112:163–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  309. Scoon RN, Teigler B (1994) Platinum-group element mineralization in the critical zone of the Western Bushveld Complex: I sulfide-poor chromitites below the UG2. Econ Geol 89:1094–1121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  310. Seabrook CL, Cawthorn RG, Kruger FJ (2005) The Merensky reef, Bushveld Complex: mixing of minerals not mixing of magmas. Econ Geol 100:1191–1206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  311. Sharpe MR (1978) “Cone-type” diabases from the eastern Transvaal—representatives of a quenched magma. Trans Geol Soc S Afr 81:373–378Google Scholar
  312. Sharpe MR (1981) The chronology of magma influxes to the eastern compartment of the Bushveld Complex, as exemplified by its marginal border group. J Geol Soc Lond 138:307–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  313. Sharpe MR (1985) Strontium isotope evidence for preserved density stratification in the main zone of the Bushveld Complex. Nature 316:119–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  314. Sharpe MR, Hulbert LJ (1985) Ultramafic sills beneath the eastern Bushveld Complex: mobilized suspensions of early lower zone cumulates in a parental magma with boninitic affinities. Econ Geol 80:849–871CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  315. Sharpe MR, Irvine TN (1983) Mixing relations of two Bushveld chilled margin rocks and implications for the origin of chromitite. Carnegie Inst Geophys Lab Yearbook 82:295–300Google Scholar
  316. Silver PG, Fouch MJ, Gao SS, Schmitz M, Kaapvaal Seismic Group (2004) Seismic anisotropy, mantle fabric, and the magmatic evolution of Precambrian southern Africa. S Afr J Geol 107:45–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  317. Simon NSC, Carlson RW, Pearson DG, Davies GR (2007) The origin and evolution of the Kaapvaal cratonic lithospheric mantle. J Petrol 48:589–625CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  318. Smith D (2007) Challenges of mining PGMs at depth. Geoforum, JohannesburgGoogle Scholar
  319. Sparks RSJ, Huppert HE, Kerr RC, McKenzie DP, Tait SR (1985) Postcumulus processes in layered intrusions. Geol Mag 122:555–568CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  320. Stewart AD (1966) On certain slump structures in the Torridonian sandstones of Applecross. Geol Mag 100:205–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  321. Stewart BW, DePaolo DJ (1990) Isotopic studies of processes in mafic magma chambers: II. The Skaergaard intrusion, East Greenland. Contrib Mineral Petrol 104:125–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  322. Stone WE, Crocket JH, Fleet ME (1990) Partitioning of palladium, iridium, platinum and gold between sulfide liquid and basalt melt at 1200 °C. Geochim et Cosmochim Acta 54:2341–2344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  323. Stumpfl EF, Rucklidge JC (1982) The platiniferous dunite pipes of the eastern Bushveld. Econ Geol 77:1419–1431CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  324. Tegner C, Wilson JR, Brooks CK (1993) Intraplutonic quench zones in the Kap Edvard Holm layered gabbro Complex, east Greenland. J Petrol 34:681–710CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  325. Tegner C, Cawthorn RG, Kruger FJ (2006) Cyclicity in the main and upper zones of the Bushveld complex, South Africa: crystallization from a zoned magma sheet. J Petrol 47:2257–2279Google Scholar
  326. Tegner C, Thy P, Holness MB, Jakobsen JK, Lesher CE (2009) Differentiation and compaction in the Skaergaard intrusion. J Petrol 50:813–840CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  327. Teigler B (1990a) Mineralogy, petrology and geochemistry of the Lower and Lower Critical Zones, northwestern Bushveld Complex. Ph.D. thesis, Rhodes University, GrahamstownGoogle Scholar
  328. Teigler B (1990b) Platinum-group element distribution in the lower and middle group chromitites in the Western Bushveld Complex. Mineral Petrol 42:165–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  329. Teigler B, Eales HV (1996) The lower and critical zones of the western limb of the Bushveld Complex, as indicated by the Nooitgedacht boreholes. Geol Surv S Afr Bull 111:126Google Scholar
  330. Teigler B, Eales HV, Scoon RN (1992) The cumulate succession in the critical zone of the Rustenburg layered suite at Brits, western Bushveld Complex. S Afr J Geol 95:17–28Google Scholar
  331. Tollari N, Toplis MJ, Barnes S-J (2006) Predicting phosphate saturation in silicate magmas: an experimental study of the effects of melt composition and temperature. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 70:1518–1536CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  332. Tollari N, Baker D, Barnes S-J (2008a) Experimental effects of pressure and fluorine on apatite saturation in mafic magmas, with reference to layered intrusions and massif anorthosites. Contrib Mineral Petrol 156:161–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  333. Tollari N, Barnes S-J, Nabil H, Cox RA (2008b) Trace elements concentrations in apatites from the intrusive suite of Sept-Îles, Canada—implications for the genesis of nelsonites. Chem Geol 252:180–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  334. Toplis MJ, Carroll MR (1995) An experimental-study of the influence of oxygen fugacity on Fe–Ti oxide stability, phase-relations, and mineral–melt equilibria in ferro-basaltic systems. J Petrol 36:1137–1170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  335. Toplis MJ, Carroll MR (1996) Differentiation of ferro-basaltic magmas under conditions open and closed to oxygen: implications for the Skaergaard intrusion and other natural systems. J Petrol 37:837–858CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  336. Toplis MJ, Corgne A (2002) An experimental study of element partitioning between magnetite, clinopyroxene and iron-bearing silicate liquids with particular emphasis on vanadium. Cont Min Petrol 144:22–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  337. Ulmer GC (1969) Experimental investigation of chromite spinels. Econ Geol Monogr 4:114–131Google Scholar
  338. Van der Merwe J, Cawthorn RG (2005) Structures at the base of the upper group 2 chromitite layer, Bushveld Complex, South Africa, on Karee Mine (Lonmin Platinum). Lithos 83:214–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  339. Van Deventer JL, Eriksson PG, Snyman CP (1986) The Thabazimbi iron ore deposits, northwestern Transvaal. In: Anhaeusser CR, Maske S (eds) Mineral deposits of Southern Africa Geol Soc S Afr, Johannesburg 923–930Google Scholar
  340. Vermaak CF (1976a) The Ni pipes of Vlakfontein and vicinity, western Transvaal. Econ Geol 71:261–286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  341. Vermaak CF (1976b) The Merensky Reef—thoughts on its environment and genesis. Econ Geol 71:1270–1298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  342. Vermaak CF, von Gruenewaldt G (1986) Introduction to the Bushveld Complex. In: Anhaeusser CR, Maske S (eds) Mineral deposits of Southern Africa. Geol Soc S Afr, Johannesburg 1021–1029Google Scholar
  343. Viljoen MJ (1999) The nature and origin of the Merensky Reef of the western Bushveld Complex based on geological facies and geophysical data. S Afr J Geol 102:221–239Google Scholar
  344. Viljoen MJ, Hieber R (1986) The Rustenburg section of Rustenburg Platinum Mines Limited, with reference to the Merensky Reef. In: Anhaeusser CR, Maske S (eds) Mineral deposits of Southern Africa. Geol Soc S Afr, Johannesburg 1117–1134Google Scholar
  345. Viljoen MJ, Schürmann LW (1998) Platinum group metals. In: Wilson MGC, Anhaeusser CR (eds) The mineral resources of South Africa. Council for Geoscience, Pretoria, pp 532–568Google Scholar
  346. Viljoen MJ, Scoon RN (1985) The distribution and main geologic features of discordant bodies of Fe rich ultramafic pegmatite in the Bushveld Complex. Econ Geol 80:1109–1128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  347. Viljoen MJ, de Klerk WJ, Coetzer PM, Hatch NP, Kinloch E, Peyerl W (1986a) The Union section of Rustenburg Platinum Mines Ltd with reference to the Merensky Reef. In: Anhaeusser CR, Maske S (eds) Mineral deposits of Southern Africa. Geol Soc S Afr, Johannesburg 1061–1090.Google Scholar
  348. Viljoen MJ, Theron J, Underwood B, Walters BM, Weaver J, Peyerl W (1986b) The Amandelbult section of Rustenburg Platinum Mines Limited, with reference to the Merensky Reef. In: Anhaeusser CR, Maske S (eds) Mineral deposits of Southern Africa. Geol Soc S Afr, Johannesburg 1041–1060Google Scholar
  349. Viring RG, Cowell MW (1999) The Merensky Reef on Northam Platinum Limited. S Afr J Geol 102:192–208Google Scholar
  350. Von Gruenewaldt G (1971) A petrographical and mineralogical investigation of the rocks of the Bushveld igneous complex in the Tauteshoogte–Roossenekal area of the eastern Transvaal. Ph.D. thesis, University of Pretoria, 228ppGoogle Scholar
  351. Von Gruenewaldt G (1973) The main and upper zones of the Bushveld Complex in the Roossenekal area, eastern Transvaal. Trans Geol Soc S Afr 76:207–227Google Scholar
  352. Von Gruenewaldt G (1976) Sulfides in the upper zone of the eastern Bushveld Complex. Econ Geol 71:1324–1336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  353. Von Gruenewaldt G (1979) A review of some recent concepts of the Bushveld Complex, with particular reference to sulfide mineralization. Can Mineralogist 17:233–256Google Scholar
  354. Von Gruenewaldt G, Klemm DD, Henckel J, Dehm RM (1985) Exsolution features in titanomagnetites from massive magnetite layers and their host rocks in the Upper Zone, eastern Bushveld Complex. Econ Geol 80:1049–1061Google Scholar
  355. Von Gruenewaldt G, Hatton CJ, Merkle RKW, Gain SB (1986) Platinum-group element–chromitite associations in the Bushveld Complex. Econ Geol 81:1067–1079CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  356. Voordouw R, Gutzmer J, Beukes NJ (2009a) Intrusive origin for upper group (UG1, UG2) stratiform chromitite seams in the Dwars River area, Bushveld Complex, South Africa. Mineral Petrol 97:75–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  357. Voordouw R, Gutzmer J, Beukes NJ (2009b) Zoning of platinum-group mineral assemblages in the UG2 chromitite determined through in situ SEM-EDS based image analysis. Mineral Dep 45:147–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  358. Vuollo J, Huhma H (2005) Proterozoic mafic dykes in NE Finland. In: Lehtinen M, Nurmi PA, Rämö OT (eds) Precambrian geology of Finland, key to the evolution of the Fennoscandian Shield. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 195–236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  359. Wager LR (1963) The mechanism of adcumulus growth in the layered series of the Skaergard intrusion. Min Soc Amer Spec Pap 1:1–9Google Scholar
  360. Wager LR, Brown GM (1964) Layered igneous rocks. Oliver and Boyd, Edinburgh, p 588Google Scholar
  361. Wagner PA (1929) The platinum deposits of the Bushveld Complex. Oliver and Boyd, Edinburgh, p 588Google Scholar
  362. Wallmach T, Hatton CJ, Droop GTR (1989) Extreme facies of contact metamorphism developed in calc-silicate xenoliths in the eastern Bushveld Complex. Can Mineral 27:509–523Google Scholar
  363. Walraven F (1997) Geochronology of the Rooiberg Group, Transvaal Supergroup, South Africa. University of Witwatersrand. Econ Geol Res Unit Info Circular 316:21Google Scholar
  364. Walraven F, Hattingh E (1993) Geochronology of the Nebo granite, Bushveld Complex. S Afr J Geol 96:31–41Google Scholar
  365. Walraven F, Frick C, Lubala RT (1992) Pb-isotope geochronology of the Schiel Complex, Northern Transvaal, South Africa. J Afr E Sci 15:103–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  366. Webb SJ, Cawthorn RG, Nguuri T, James D (2003) Gravity modeling of Bushveld Complex connectivity supported by Southern African Seismic experiment results. S Afr J Geol 107:207–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  367. Webb SJ, Ashwal LD, Cawthorn RG (2011) Continuity between eastern and western Bushveld Complex, confirmed by xenoliths from kimberlite. Contrib Mineral Petrol 162:101–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  368. White JA (1994) The Potgietersrus project geology and exploration history. Proceedings of the 15th CMMI Congress. S Afr Inst Min Metall 173–182Google Scholar
  369. Willemse J (1969) The vanadiferous magnetic iron ore of the Bushveld Igneous Complex. Econ Geol Monogr 4:137–208Google Scholar
  370. Willmore CG, Boudreau AE, Kruger FJ (2000) The halogen geochemistry of the Bushveld Complex, Republic of South Africa: implications for chalcophile element distribution in the lower and critical zones. J Petrol 41:1517–1539CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  371. Wilson AH (2012) A chill sequence to the Bushveld Complex: insight into the first stage of emplacement and implications for the parental magmas. J Petrol 53:1123–1168Google Scholar
  372. Wilson MGC, Anhaeusser CR (1998) The mineral resources of South Africa. Council for Geoscience, Handbook 16, 740ppGoogle Scholar
  373. Wilson AH, Chunnett G (2006) Trace element and platinum group element distributions and the genesis of the Merensky Reef, Western Bushveld Complex, South Africa. J Petrol 47:2369–2403CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  374. Wilson AH, Chunnett G (2010) New insight into the stratigraphy, emplacement and evolution of the basal ultramafic succession in the eastern Bushveld Complex, South Africa, Abstr. 11th Plat Symposium, SudburyGoogle Scholar
  375. Wilson AH, Tredoux M (1990) Lateral and vertical distribution of platinum-group elements and petrogenetic controls on the sulfide mineralization in the P1 pyroxenite layer of the Darwendale subchamber of the Great Dyke, Zimbabwe. Econ Geol 85: 556–584Google Scholar
  376. Wilson JR, Sorensen HS (1996) The Fongen–Hyllingen layered intrusive complex, Norway. In: Cawthorn RG (ed) Layered intrusions. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 303–330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  377. Wilson JR, Cawthorn RG, Kruger FJ, Grundvig S (1994) Intrusive origin for the uncomformable upper zone in the northern gap, western Bushveld Complex. S Afr J Geol 97:462–472Google Scholar
  378. www.petmin.co.za (2010) Petmin annual review. Director’s review of operations—VeremoGoogle Scholar
  379. Yaxley GM, Berry AJ, Kamenetsky VS, Woodland AB, Paterson D, De Jong MD, Howard DL (2011) Redox profile through the Siberian craton: Fe K-edge XANES determination of Fe3+/Fe2+ in garnet from peridotite xenoliths of the Udachnaya kimberlite. Abstr. Goldschmidt Conference, PragueGoogle Scholar
  380. Yudovskaya M, Kinnaird JA (2010) Chromite in the Platreef (Bushveld Complex, South Africa): occurrence and evolution of its chemical composition. Mineral Deposita 45:369–391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  381. Yudovskaya M, Kinnaird JA, Naldrett AJ, Mokhov A, Kuznetsova M, McDonald I (2010) Facies variability of PGE mineralization in Platreef chromitites (abstract). Ontario Geological Survey Miscellaneous Release Data-269Google Scholar
  382. Yudovskaya M, Kinnaird JA, Sobolev A, Kuzmin D, Wilson A (2012) Petrogenesis of the Lower Zone cumulates beneath the Platreef and their correlation with recognised occurrences in the Bushveld Complex. Ext Abstr, 12th Int Ni–Cu–PGE symposium. GuiyangGoogle Scholar
  383. Zhou M-F, Robinson PT, Lesher CM, Keays RR, Zhang C-J, Malpas J (2005) Geochemistry, petrogenesis and metallogenesis of the Panzhihua gabbroic layered intrusion and associated Fe–Ti–V oxide deposits, Sichuan Province, SW China. J Petrol 46:2253–2280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  384. Zientek ML, Foose MP, Mei L (1986) Palladium, platinum and rhodium contents of rocks near the lower margin of the Stillwater Complex, Montana. Econ Geol 81:1169–1178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  385. Zientek ML, Cooper RW, Corson SR, Geraghty EP (2002) Platinum-group element mineralization in the Stillwater Complex, Montana. In Cabri LJ (ed) The geology, geochemistry, mineralogy and mineral beneficiation of platinum-group elements. Can Inst Min Metall Spec Vol 54:459–481Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of GeosciencesUniversity of OuluOuluFinland
  2. 2.Sciences de la TerreUniversité du Québec à ChicoutimiQuebecCanada
  3. 3.Centre for Exploration TargetingUniversity of Western AustraliaPerthAustralia

Personalised recommendations