We aimed to investigate the association between maternal consumption of gluten-containing foods and other selected foods during late pregnancy and offspring risk of islet autoimmunity (IA) and type 1 diabetes in The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY) study.
The TEDDY study recruited children at high genetic risk for type 1 diabetes at birth, and prospectively follows them for the development of IA and type 1 diabetes (n = 8556). A questionnaire on the mother’s diet in late pregnancy was completed by 3–4 months postpartum. The maternal daily intake was estimated from a food frequency questionnaire for eight food groups: gluten-containing foods, non-gluten cereals, fresh milk, sour milk, cheese products, soy products, lean/medium-fat fish and fatty fish. For each food, we described the distribution of maternal intake among the four participating countries in the TEDDY study and tested the association of tertile of maternal food consumption with risk of IA and type 1 diabetes using forward selection time-to-event Cox regression.
By 28 February 2019, 791 cases of IA and 328 cases of type 1 diabetes developed in TEDDY. There was no association between maternal late-pregnancy consumption of gluten-containing foods or any of the other selected foods and risk of IA, type 1 diabetes, insulin autoantibody-first IA or GAD autoantibody-first IA (all p ≥ 0.01). Maternal gluten-containing food consumption in late pregnancy was higher in Sweden (242 g/day), Germany (247 g/day) and Finland (221 g/day) than in the USA (199 g/day) (pairwise p < 0.05).
Maternal food consumption during late pregnancy was not associated with offspring risk for IA or type 1 diabetes.
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Data described in the manuscript will be made available upon request from the NIDDK Central Repository at https://www.niddkrepository.org/studies/teddy.
Food frequency questionnaire
Insulinoma antigen-2 autoantibody
The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young
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Thank you to the participants and families of the TEDDY study, whose continued commitment make such research possible. The TEDDY Study Group is acknowledged for excellent collaboration (see the ESM).
Authors’ relationships and activities
The authors declare that there are no relationships or activities that might bias, or be perceived to bias, their work.
The TEDDY study is funded by U01 DK63829, U01 DK63861, U01 DK63821, U01 DK63865, U01 DK63863, U01 DK63836, U01 DK63790, UC4 DK63829, UC4 DK63861, UC4 DK63821, UC4 DK63865, UC4 DK63863, UC4 DK63836, UC4 DK95300, UC4 DK100238, UC4 DK106955, UC4 DK112243, UC4 DK117483 and Contract No. HHSN267200700014C from the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and JDRF. This work was supported in part by the NIH/NCATS Clinical and Translational Science Awards to the University of Florida (UL1 TR000064) and the University of Colorado (UL1 TR002535).
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Johnson, R.K., Tamura, R., Frank, N. et al. Maternal food consumption during late pregnancy and offspring risk of islet autoimmunity and type 1 diabetes. Diabetologia (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00125-021-05446-y
- Maternal diet
- Type 1 diabetes