Advertisement

Diabetologia

, Volume 62, Issue 3, pp 549–552 | Cite as

Correction to: Nuts as a replacement for carbohydrates in the diabetic diet: a reanalysis of a randomised controlled trial

  • David J. A. JenkinsEmail author
  • Cyril W. C. Kendall
  • Benoît Lamarche
  • Monica S. Banach
  • Korbua Srichaikul
  • Edward Vidgen
  • Sandy Mitchell
  • Tina Parker
  • Stephanie Nishi
  • Balachandran Bashyam
  • Russell J. de Souza
  • Christopher Ireland
  • Sathish C. Pichika
  • Joseph Beyene
  • John L. Sievenpiper
  • Robert G. Josse
Correction

Correction to: Diabetologia

  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00125-018-4628-9

In contrast to statements made in the above paper, measurements of waist and hip circumference were in fact available. Table 2 (Biochemistry and anthropometric measurements at baseline and study end) and Table 3 (Treatment differences in change for blood and anthropometric measurements in the intention-to-treat analysis) are updated here to include the missing data for waist circumference, hip circumference and waist/hip ratio. Analysis of the data did not show any significant effects of the full-dose nut diet, full-dose muffin diet or the half-dose nut diet on waist circumference, hip circumference or waist/hip ratio within groups or between groups.
Table 2

Biochemistry and anthropometric measurements at baseline and study end

 

Baseline

Study end

Variable

Full-dose nut diet

(n = 40)

Half-dose nut diet

(n = 38)

Full-dose muffin diet

(n = 39)

Full-dose nut diet

(n = 39)

Half-dose nut diet

(n = 32)

Full-dose muffin diet

(n = 32)

Glucose, mmol/la

7.17 (1.48)

6.95 (1.22)

7.33 (2.17)

7.20 (1.80)

6.55 (2.90)

7.20 (1.75)

HbA1c, mmol/mola

52.6 (7.5)

52.3 (7.3)

53.7 (6.6)

50.8 (9.8)

50.3 (7.7)

52.4 (9.8)

HbA1c, %a

6.97 (0.68)

6.93 (0.67)

7.07 (0.60)

6.80 (0.90)

6.75 (0.70)

6.95 (0.90)

Total cholesterol, mmol/la

4.10 (1.81)

3.98 (0.93)

4.27 (1.42)

3.96 (1.21)

3.93 (1.06)

4.20 (1.42)

LDL-c, mmol/lb

2.46 (1.05)

2.18 (0.60)

2.29 (0.78)

2.27 (1.00)

2.04 (0.61)

2.37 (0.84)

HDL-c, mmol/la

1.12 (0.35)

1.10 (0.31)

1.11 (0.35)

1.23 (0.31)

1.16 (0.34)

1.18 (0.27)

Triacylglycerols, mmol/la

1.43 (0.93)

1.32 (0.64)

1.40 (0.71)

1.35 (1.08)

1.45 (0.93)

1.42 (0.93)

Total cholesterol:HDL-c ratioa

3.79 (1.46)

3.39 (0.81)

3.44 (1.39)

3.44 (1.36)

3.27 (1.32)

3.49 (1.69)

LDL-c:HDL-c ratioa

1.96 (1.31)

1.86 (0.81)

1.81 (1.27)

1.77 (1.01)

1.73 (1.04)

1.97 (1.28)

Non-HDL-c, mmol/la

3.18 (1.54)

2.78 (0.87)

2.91 (1.47)

3.03 (1.17)

2.73 (1.12)

3.11 (1.55)

Triacylglycerol:HDL-c ratioa

1.24 (1.31)

1.11 (0.91)

1.26 (1.15)

1.06 (1.35)

1.29 (1.05)

1.28 (1.05)

ApoA1, g/la

1.43 (0.24)

1.44 (0.37)

1.43 (0.22)

1.43 (0.30)

1.48 (0.35)

1.46 (0.23)

ApoB, g/la

0.84 (0.36)

0.73 (0.21)

0.75 (0.26)

0.78 (0.29)

0.74 (0.24)

0.78 (0.30)

ApoB:ApoA1a

0.57 (0.20)

0.50 (0.23)

0.50 (0.25)

0.52 (0.21)

0.44 (0.25)

0.52 (0.28)

CRP, nmol/la

1.04 (1.20)

0.87 (1.69)

1.23 (1.50)

0.86 (1.52)

1.01 (1.73)

0.92 (1.67)

Weight, kgb

80.0 (14.7)

86.2 (15.6)

82.9 (14.7)

79.1 (14.0)

84.8 (15.1)

82.6 (14.9)

BMI, kg/m2 b

28.8 (4.5)

30.3 (5.0)

29.4 (4.2)

28.5 (4.4)

29.9 (5.2)

29.2 (4.1)

Waist (cm)b

102 (11)

106 (13)

106 (11)

101 (12)

105 (14)

104 (10)

Hip (cm)b

108 (8)

111 (10)

109 (9)

108 (8)

110 (10)

109 (9)

Waist/hip ratiob

0.95 (0.06)

0.96 (0.05)

0.97 (0.06)

0.94 (0.06)

0.95 (0.06)

0.96 (0.05)

Blood pressure, mmHg

 Systolicb

122 (11)

124 (13)

125 (13)

120 (13)

124 (15)

123 (12)

 Diastolicb

70 (9)

72 (8)

72 (10)

69 (10)

72 (6)

72 (10)

LDL-c < 255 Å, mmol/la

1.37 (0.81)

1.28 (0.84)

1.13 (0.80)

1.26 (0.73)

1.14 (0.63)

1.33 (0.90)

LDL-c 255–260 Å, mmol/la

0.50 (0.68)

0.55 (0.36)

0.67 (0.57)

0.49 (0.64)

0.51 (0.37)

0.66 (0.34)

LDL-c > 255 Å, mmol/la

0.20 (0.34)

0.30 (0.20)

0.31 (0.48)

0.19 (0.35)

0.27 (0.21)

0.32 (0.37)

Fibrinogen, μmol/lb

10.2 (1.3)

10.0 (1.9)

9.4 (1.5)

10.1 (2.0)

9.7 (1.8)

9.0 (1.8)

Factor VII, U/mlb

1.15 (0.25)

1.02 (0.28)

1.10 (0.21)

1.13 (0.26)

1.03 (0.23)

1.13 (0.21)

Factor VIII, U/mlb

1.08 (0.31)

1.20 (0.38)

1.17 (0.39)

1.20 (0.37)

1.32 (0.46)

1.33 (0.43)

PAI-1, pmol/la

438 (434)

470 (227)

475 (438)

392 (215)

496 (368)

404 (381)

Antioxidants

(n = 38)

(n = 32)

(n = 31)

(n = 38)

(n = 32)

(n = 30)

 Protein thiols (μmol/l)b

317.0 (71.8)

326.6 (72.2)

317.7 (53.8)

355.7 (76.3)

345.9 (6.4)

356.5 (88.7)

 Conjugated dienes (μmol/l)b

25.2 (9.8)

22.6 (9.8)

24.2 (7.7)

23.0 (9.7)

22.1 (10.0)

21.8 (6.9)

 TBARS (μmol/l)b

0.32 (0.10)

0.35 (0.12)

0.31 (0.10)

0.32 (0.10)

0.36 (0.12)

0.29 (0.11)

aData are presented as median (interquartile range) for non-normally distributed data

bData are presented as mean (SD) for normally distributed data

For baseline: HbA1c, glucose and blood pressure baseline values were calculated as the mean of values at screening and weeks −1 and 0; for weight, BMI, waist circumference, hip circumference, waist/hip ratio and antioxidants, values at week 0 were used; for lipids, lipoproteins and CRP, the mean of weeks −1 and 0 were used (n = 93), or screening and week 0 if week −1 was missing (n = 17). For n = 6, only week 0 data were available. Data were not available for n = 1 who was randomised to the half-dose nut group but dropped out prior to week 0; for particle size and clotting factors, week 0 was used (n = 113) or week −1 if week 0 had insufficient serum quantities or samples were missing (n = 4)

For study end: HbA1c, glucose and blood pressure study end values were calculated as the mean of weeks 8, 10 and 12 (final month); for lipid, lipoproteins and CRP, week 8, 10 and 12 samples were also used apart from for n = 3 who only had week 8 samples available; for weight, BMI, waist circumference, hip circumference and waist/hip ratio, week 12 values were used (n = 100) or, if not available, week 8 values (n = 3); for particle size and clotting factors, owing to limited sample availability, week 12 samples were used (n = 97) or, if not available, week 10 samples (n = 3), or week 8 samples (n = 3; where week 10 samples were also unavailable); for antioxidants, week 12 samples were used where serum samples were available (conjugates dienes and TBARS, n = 100; protein thiols, n = 99 [analytical failure lead to loss of data for n = 1 sample])

TBARS, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances

Table 3

Treatment differences in change for blood and anthropometric measurements in the intention-to-treat analysis

 

Full-dose nut vs full-dose muffin diet

Full-dose nut vs half-dose nut diet

Half-dose nut vs full-dose muffin diet

 

β

95% CI

p

Adj CI

Adj p

β

95% CI

p

Adj CI

Adj p

β

95% CI

p

Adj CI

Adj p

Glucose (mmol/l)a

−0.02

(−0.09, 0.06)

0.610

(−0.11, 0.07)

0.867

−0.05

(−0.12, 0.03)

0.228

(−0.14, 0.04)

0.449

0.03

(−0.05, 0.10)

0.506

(−0.07, 0.12)

0.784

HbA1c (mmol/mol)b

−2.0

(−3.8, −0.3)

0.026

(−4.2, 0.1)

0.066

−1.8

(−3.6, −0.04)

0.045

(−4.0, 0.3)

0.111

−0.2

(−2.1, 1.6)

0.813

(−2.5, 2.0)

0.969

HbA1c (mmol/mol)a

−0.04

(−0.07, −0.01)

0.017

(−0.08, −0.001)

0.043

−0.03

(−0.07, −0.002)

0.038

(−0.07, 0.01)

0.095

−0.01

(−0.04, 0.03)

0.749

(−0.05, 0.04)

0.945

HbA1c (%)b

−0.19

(−0.35, −0.02)

0.026

(−0.38, 0.01)

0.066

−0.17

(−0.33, −0.004)

0.045

(−0.36, 0.03)

0.111

−0.02

(−0.19, 0.15)

0.813

(−0.23, 0.18)

0.969

HbA1c (%)a

−0.03

(−0.05, −0.005)

0.018

(−0.06, −0.0002)

0.048

−0.02

(−0.05, −0.001)

0.039

(−0.05, 0.003)

0.097

0.00

(−0.03, 0.02)

0.768

(−0.03, 0.03)

0.953

Total cholesterol (mmol/l)a

−0.06

(−0.12, −0.01)

0.026

(−0.13, 0.003)

0.066

−0.04

(−0.10, 0.01)

0.119

(−0.11, 0.02)

0.264

−0.02

(−0.08, 0.04)

0.508

(−0.09, 0.05)

0.785

LDL-c (mmol/L)a

−0.09

(−0.18, −0.0004)

0.049

(−0.20, 0.02)

0.120

−0.04

(−0.13, 0.05)

0.383

(−0.15, 0.07)

0.657

−0.05

(−0.15, 0.04)

0.288

(−0.17, 0.06)

0.537

Small LDL-c (<255 Å, mmol/l)a,c,d

−0.35

(−0.61, −0.10)

0.007

(−0.66, −0.05)

0.018

−0.07

(−0.32, 0.19)

0.601

(−0.37, 0.24)

0.860

−0.29

(−0.55, −0.02)

0.034

(−0.60, 0.03)

0.085

Medium LDL-c (255-260 Å, mmol/l)a,c,d

0.10

(−0.13, 0.33)

0.382

(−0.17, 0.38)

0.655

0.00

(−0.23, 0.24)

0.976

(−0.27, 0.28)

1.000

0.10

(−0.14, 0.34)

0.417

(−0.19, 0.38)

0.694

Large LDL-c (>255 Å, mmol/l)a,c,d

−0.08

(−0.52, 0.37)

0.732

(−0.61, 0.46)

0.937

0.18

(−0.27, 0.62)

0.433

(−0.36, 0.71)

0.711

−0.25

(−0.70, 0.19)

0.264

(−0.79, 0.28)

0.502

HDL-c (mmol/l)

0.00

(−0.05, 0.05)

0.987

(−0.06, 0.06)

1.000

0.02

(−0.03, 0.06)

0.472

(−0.04, 0.07)

0.752

−0.02

(−0.07, 0.03)

0.501

(−0.08, 0.04)

0.779

Triacylglycerols (mmol/l)a

−0.09

(−0.20, 0.03)

0.159

(−0.23, 0.06)

0.335

−0.11

(−0.23, 0.01)

0.064

(−0.25, 0.03)

0.153

0.03

(−0.10, 0.15)

0.678

(−0.12, 0.17)

0.909

Total cholesterol:HDL-c ratioa

−0.06

(−0.13, 0.01)

0.080

(−0.14, 0.02)

0.186

−0.05

(−0.12, 0.02)

0.127

(−0.14, 0.03)

0.277

−0.01

(−0.08, 0.06)

0.825

(−0.09, 0.08)

0.973

LDL-c:HDL-c ratioa

−0.09

(−0.19, 0.01)

0.084

(−0.21, 0.03)

0.195

−0.05

(−0.15, 0.05)

0.334

(−0.17, 0.07)

0.598

−0.04

(−0.15, 0.07)

0.460

(−0.17, 0.09)

0.740

Non-HDL-c (mmol/l)a

−0.09

(−0.17, −0.01)

0.026

(−0.19, 0.005)

0.067

−0.06

(−0.14, 0.02)

0.114

(−0.16, 0.03)

0.253

−0.03

(−0.11, 0.06)

0.526

(−0.13, 0.07)

0.801

Triacylglycerol:HDL-c ratioa

−0.08

(−0.22, 0.06)

0.238

(−0.25, 0.08)

0.464

−0.12

(−0.26, 0.02)

0.085

(−0.29, 0.04)

0.197

0.04

(−0.11, 0.18)

0.607

(−0.14, 0.21)

0.864

ApoA1 (g/l)

−0.03

(−0.08, 0.01)

0.131

(−0.09, 0.02)

0.286

−0.02

(−0.07, 0.02)

0.328

(−0.08, 0.03)

0.590

−0.01

(−0.06, 0.03)

0.604

(−0.07, 0.04)

0.862

ApoB (g/l)a

−0.09

(−0.16, −0.02)

0.015

(−0.17, −0.003)

0.039

−0.05

(−0.12, 0.02)

0.176

(−0.13, 0.04)

0.364

−0.04

(−0.11, 0.03)

0.290

(−0.13, 0.05)

0.540

ApoB:ApoA1a

−0.06

(−0.14, 0.01)

0.096

(−0.16, 0.03)

0.218

−0.01

(−0.08, 0.07)

0.850

(−0.10, 0.08)

0.981

−0.06

(−0.14, 0.02)

0.155

(−0.15, 0.04)

0.328

Serum CRP (nmol/l)a

0.00

(−0.36, 0.36)

0.996

(−0.43, 0.43)

1.000

−0.17

(−0.52, 0.19)

0.359

(−0.59, 0.26)

0.628

0.17

(−0.20, 0.54)

0.375

(−0.28, 0.61)

0.648

Fibrinogen (μmol/l)a,c,d

0.04

(−0.04, 0.12)

0.330

(−0.06, 0.13)

0.592

−0.02

(−0.10, 0.06)

0.648

(−0.11, 0.08)

0.891

0.06

(−0.02, 0.14)

0.169

(−0.04, 0.16)

0.352

Factor VII (U/ml)c,d

−0.06

(−0.12, −0.002)

0.043

(−0.13, 0.01)

0.106

−0.01

(−0.07, 0.05)

0.715

(−0.08, 0.06)

0.929

−0.05

(−0.11, 0.01)

0.110

(−0.12, 0.02)

0.244

Factor VIII (U/ml)c,d

0.02

(−0.08, 0.13)

0.662

(−0.10, 0.15)

0.900

0.01

(−0.10, 0.11)

0.878

(−0.12, 0.13)

0.987

0.01

(−0.09, 0.12)

0.786

(−0.11, 0.14)

0.960

PAI-1 (pmol/l)c,d

−45.1

(−178, 87.7)

0.502

(−204, 114)

0.779

−147

(−281, −13.1)

0.032

(−308, 13.6)

0.080

102

(−35.9, 240)

0.145

(−63.4, 268)

0.311

Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)

−0.03

(−3.96, 3.90)

0.990

(−4.73, 4.68)

1.000

−2.84

(−6.75, 1.06)

0.153

(−7.52, 1.83)

0.325

2.82

(−1.27, 6.90)

0.176

(−2.07, 7.70)

0.364

Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)

−0.68

(−3.05, 1.69)

0.572

(−3.52, 2.16)

0.839

−1.41

(−3.77, 0.95)

0.240

(−4.23, 1.41)

0.467

0.73

(−1.73, 3.19)

0.560

(−2.22, 3.68)

0.829

Weight (kg)c,e

−0.33

(−1.11, 0.45)

0.407

(−1.26, 0.61)

0.683

−0.73

(−1.52, 0.06)

0.070

(−1.67, 0.22)

0.164

0.40

(−0.41, 1.21)

0.330

(−0.57, 1.37)

0.592

BMI (kg/m2)c,e

−0.12

(−0.40, 0.16)

0.391

(−0.45, 0.21)

0.666

−0.26

(−0.54, 0.02)

0.070

(−0.59, 0.08)

0.164

0.14

(−0.15, 0.42)

0.343

(−0.21, 0.48)

0.609

Waist (cm)a,c,e

0

(−0.03, 0.02)

0.738

(−0.04, 0.03)

0.940

0

(−0.03, 0.02)

0.821

(−0.04. 0.03)

0.972

0

(−0.03, 0.02)

0.917

(−0.03, 0.03)

0.994

Hip (cm)c,e

1

(−1, 2)

0.241

(−1, 2)

0.467

0

(−1, 2)

0.721

(−1, 2)

0.932

1

(−1, 2)

0.421

(−1, 2)

0.699

Waist/hip ratioa,c,e

−0.01

(−0.03, 0.01)

0.315

(−0.03, 0.01)

0.573

0

(−0.02, 0.02)

0.726

(−0.03, 0.02)

0.934

−0.01

(−0.03, 0.01)

0.519

(−0.03, 0.02)

0.794

Protein thiols (μmol/l)c,f

0.42

(−31.2, 32.1)

0.979

(−37.6, 38.4)

1.000

13.0

(−18.7, 44.8)

0.417

(−25.0, 51.1)

0.695

−12.6

(−45.6, 20.4)

0.449

(−52.2, 26.9)

0.728

Conjugated dienes (μmol/l)a,c,e

0.09

(−0.07, 0.25)

0.262

(−0.10, 0.28)

0.499

−0.05

(−0.21, 0.11)

0.513

(−0.25, 0.14)

0.789

0.14

(−0.02, 0.31)

0.088

(−0.06, 0.34)

0.202

TBARS (μmol/l)a,c,e

0.09

(−0.06, 0.23)

0.247

(−0.09, 0.26)

0.477

0.01

(−0.13, 0.16)

0.865

(−0.16, 0.19)

0.984

0.07

(−0.08, 0.23)

0.339

(−0.11, 0.26)

0.603

Unless otherwise indicated, n = 108/117; nine participants (half-dose nut group, n = 5; full- dose muffin group, n = 4) without post-intervention data are not captured in this analysis

Unless otherwise indicated, the outcome reported is change, modelled as change from baseline. Estimates taken from a repeated measures model in PROC MIXED, SAS 9.4, with sex, binary HbA1c and lipid medications as covariates. Estimated from week 12 using least squares means with Tukey adjusted p values and confidence limits from all available data (week 2, 4, 8, 10 and 12)

aData for which residuals were not normally distributed have been loge transformed

bNo covariates (without sex, binary HbA1c or lipid medications as covariates). Values represent change from baseline, with estimates taken from a repeated measures model in PROC MIXED, SAS 9.4 (as above)

cp values taken from ANCOVA models; estimates taken from week 12 as change from baseline, outcome model against treatment with sex, binary HbA1c and lipid medication as covariates. Tukey adjustment was applied for pairwise comparisons between the three treatment groups

dn = 103 (full-dose nut group, n = 39; half-dose nut group, n = 32; full-dose muffin group, n = 32)

en = 100 (full-dose nut group, n = 38; half-dose nut group, n = 32; full-dose muffin group, n = 30)

fn = 99 (full-dose nut group, n = 38; half-dose nut group, n = 31; full-dose muffin group, n = 30); loss of n = 1 data point due to analytical failure for one participant in the half-dose nut group

Adj, adjusted; TBARS, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances

Notes

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • David J. A. Jenkins
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
    Email author
  • Cyril W. C. Kendall
    • 1
    • 3
    • 6
  • Benoît Lamarche
    • 7
  • Monica S. Banach
    • 3
  • Korbua Srichaikul
    • 1
    • 3
    • 8
  • Edward Vidgen
    • 1
    • 3
  • Sandy Mitchell
    • 3
  • Tina Parker
    • 3
  • Stephanie Nishi
    • 1
    • 3
  • Balachandran Bashyam
    • 1
    • 3
  • Russell J. de Souza
    • 1
    • 3
    • 9
  • Christopher Ireland
    • 3
  • Sathish C. Pichika
    • 1
    • 3
    • 10
  • Joseph Beyene
    • 9
  • John L. Sievenpiper
    • 1
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
  • Robert G. Josse
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of MedicineUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada
  2. 2.Department of Medicine, Faculty of MedicineUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada
  3. 3.Clinical Nutrition and Risk Factor Modification CentreSt Michael’s HospitalTorontoCanada
  4. 4.Division of Endocrinology and MetabolismSt Michael’s HospitalTorontoCanada
  5. 5.Li Ka Shing Knowledge InstituteSt Michael’s HospitalTorontoCanada
  6. 6.College of Pharmacy and NutritionUniversity of SaskatchewanSaskatoonCanada
  7. 7.School of Nutrition, Institute of Nutrition and Functional FoodsLaval UniversityQuebec CityCanada
  8. 8.Division of Family and Community MedicineSt Michael’s HospitalTorontoCanada
  9. 9.Department of Health Research Methods, Evidence, and ImpactMcMaster UniversityHamiltonCanada
  10. 10.Department of Mathematics and StatisticsUniversity of WindsorWindsorCanada

Personalised recommendations