, Volume 61, Issue 6, pp 1273–1276 | Cite as

Defining outcomes for beta cell replacement therapy: a work in progress

  • Lorenzo Piemonti
  • Eelco J. P. de Koning
  • Thierry Berney
  • Jon S. Odorico
  • James F. Markmann
  • Peter G. Stock
  • Michael R. Rickels


Defined outcomes for beta cell replacement therapy in the treatment of diabetes are critically needed. Progress towards the clinical acceptance of pancreas and islet transplantation has been hampered by the lack of clear definitions of functional and efficacy outcomes, as well as a lack of consistently applied glycaemic control metrics, together with poor alignment with the field of artificial insulin delivery/artificial pancreas development. To address this problem, the International Pancreas & Islet Transplant Association (IPITA) collaborated with the European Pancreas and Islet Transplant Association (EPITA) to develop a consensus for a joint statement on the definition of function and failure of beta cell replacement therapies, which is summarised in this commentary.


Islet transplantation Outcomes Pancreas transplantation 



Continuous glucose monitoring


European Pancreas and Islet Transplant Association


International Pancreas & Islet Transplant Association


Self-monitoring of blood glucose



The authors thank S. Livingston of The Transplantation Society and C. Parisotto and G. Rossi of the European Society for Organ Transplantation for their assistance with organisation of the workshop.

Contribution statement

All authors were responsible for drafting the article and revising it critically for important intellectual content. All authors approved the version to be published.


LP is supported in part by a grant from the European Commission (H2020 681070). MRR is supported in part by U.S. Public Health Services research grants R01 DK091331 and R01 DK97830.

Duality of interest

The authors declare that there is no duality of interest associated with this manuscript.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lorenzo Piemonti
    • 1
    • 2
  • Eelco J. P. de Koning
    • 3
  • Thierry Berney
    • 4
  • Jon S. Odorico
    • 5
  • James F. Markmann
    • 6
  • Peter G. Stock
    • 7
  • Michael R. Rickels
    • 8
  1. 1.Diabetes Research Institute, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific InstituteMilanItaly
  2. 2.Vita-Salute San Raffaele UniversityMilanItaly
  3. 3.Department of MedicineLeiden University Medical CenterLeidenthe Netherlands
  4. 4.Division of Transplantation and Visceral Surgery, Department of SurgeryGeneva University HospitalGenevaSwitzerland
  5. 5.Division of Transplantation, Department of SurgeryUniversity of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public HealthMadisonUSA
  6. 6.Division of Transplantation, Department of SurgeryMassachusetts General HospitalBostonUSA
  7. 7.Division of Transplantation, Department of SurgeryUniversity of California at San FranciscoSan FranciscoUSA
  8. 8.Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism, Department of MedicineUniversity of Pennsylvania Perelman School of MedicinePhiladelphiaUSA

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