Retinopathy with central oedema in an INSC94Y transgenic pig model of long-term diabetes
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Diabetic retinopathy is a severe complication of diabetes mellitus that often leads to blindness. Because the pathophysiology of diabetic retinopathy is not fully understood and novel therapeutic interventions require testing, there is a need for reliable animal models that mimic all the complications of diabetic retinopathy. Pig eyes share important anatomical and physiological similarities with human eyes. Previous studies have demonstrated that INSC94Y transgenic pigs develop a stable diabetic phenotype and ocular alterations such as cataracts. The aim of this study was to conduct an in-depth analysis of pathological changes in retinas from INSC94Y pigs exposed to hyperglycaemia for more than 2 years, representing a chronic diabetic condition.
Eyes from six INSC94Ypigs and six age-matched control littermates were analysed via histology and immunohistochemistry. For histological analyses of retinal (layer) thickness, sections were stained with H&E or Mallory’s trichrome. For comparison of protein expression patterns and vessel courses, sections were stained with different antibodies in immunohistochemistry. Observed lesions were compared with reported pathologies in human diabetic retinopathy.
INSC94Ypigs developed several signs of diabetic retinopathy similar to those seen in humans, such as intraretinal microvascular abnormalities, symptoms of proliferative diabetic retinopathy and central retinal oedema in a region that is cone rich, like the human macula.
The INSC94Ypig is an interesting model for studying the pathophysiology of diabetic retinopathy and for testing novel therapeutic strategies.
KeywordsAnimal model Cataract Colour vision Diabetes Eye disease Macular oedema Pathophysiologic processes Retinopathy Vascular complications
Dolichos biflorus agglutinin
Lycopersicon esculentum lectin
Neurofilament heavy chain
Smooth muscle actin