Association between type 2 diabetes and risk of cancer mortality: a pooled analysis of over 771,000 individuals in the Asia Cohort Consortium
The aims of the study were to evaluate the association between type 2 diabetes and the risk of death from any cancer and specific cancers in East and South Asians.
Pooled analyses were conducted of 19 prospective population-based cohorts included in the Asia Cohort Consortium, comprising data from 658,611 East Asians and 112,686 South Asians. HRs were used to compare individuals with diabetes at baseline with those without diabetes for the risk of death from any cancer and from site-specific cancers, including cancers of the oesophagus, stomach, colorectum, colon, rectum, liver, bile duct, pancreas, lung, breast, endometrium, cervix, ovary, prostate, bladder, kidney and thyroid, as well as lymphoma and leukaemia.
During a mean follow-up of 12.7 years, 37,343 cancer deaths (36,667 in East Asians and 676 in South Asians) were identified. Baseline diabetes status was statistically significantly associated with an increased risk of death from any cancer (HR 1.26; 95% CI 1.21, 1.31). Significant positive associations with diabetes were observed for cancers of the colorectum (HR 1.41; 95% CI 1.26, 1.57), liver (HR 2.05; 95% CI 1.77, 2.38), bile duct (HR 1.41; 95% CI 1.04, 1.92), gallbladder (HR 1.33; 95% CI 1.10, 1.61), pancreas (HR 1.53; 95% CI 1.32, 1.77), breast (HR 1.72; 95% CI 1.34, 2.19), endometrium (HR 2.73; 95% CI 1.53, 4.85), ovary (HR 1.60; 95% CI 1.06, 2.42), prostate (HR 1.41; 95% CI 1.09, 1.82), kidney (HR 1.84; 95% CI 1.28, 2.64) and thyroid (HR 1.99; 95% CI 1.03, 3.86), as well as lymphoma (HR 1.39; 95% CI 1.04, 1.86). Diabetes was not statistically significantly associated with the risk of death from leukaemia and cancers of the bladder, cervix, oesophagus, stomach and lung.
Diabetes was associated with a 26% increased risk of death from any cancer in Asians. The pattern of associations with specific cancers suggests the need for better control (prevention, detection, management) of the growing epidemic of diabetes (as well as obesity), in order to reduce cancer mortality.
KeywordsAsia Cohort Consortium Asians Cancer mortality Meta-analysis Type 2 diabetes
Asia ohort Consortium
- CPS II
Cancer Prevention Study II
Emerging risk factors collaboration
There is emerging evidence of a link between type 2 diabetes and an increased risk of developing cancer and death from cancer. A meta-analysis estimated that diabetes was associated with a 17% and 21% increased risk of developing any cancer and death from any cancer, respectively . However, most studies of the association between diabetes and cancer risk have been conducted in Western populations . Epidemiological studies have documented consistent increases in the prevalence of diabetes across Asia [3, 4]. Some evidence suggests that, at any given BMI, Asians are more susceptible to insulin resistance and have a higher prevalence of diabetes in comparison with whites . The risk of diabetes-related complications and comorbidities may be different in Asians and whites. Some evidence also suggests that cancer risk associated with diabetes is higher in Asians than in non-Asians ; however, the data are inconclusive. Given the increasing prevalence of diabetes and diabetes risk factors in Asian populations [3, 4], it is important to understand the effect of diabetes on cancer in Asians.
Several prospective studies of diabetes and site-specific cancer risk have been conducted in individual cohorts in East Asians. However, the majority of the studies have examined risk for one or only a few cancer sites [6, 7, 8, 9, 10], included a small number of patients with diabetes [11, 12], or failed to control for important potential confounding variables such as BMI or obesity [6, 7, 8, 12, 13]. Asia is heterogeneous, with higher cancer mortality found in East Asian countries such as China, Japan and South Korea (125–164 per 100,000 in men and 65–82 per 100,000 in women) than in South Asian countries such as Bangladesh and India (70–90 per 100,000 in men and 60–72 per 100,000 in women) . However, no prospective cohort studies have investigated the influence of diabetes on cancer in South Asians. Large prospective studies on the association between diabetes and cancer at specific organ sites in Asian populations are therefore needed.
We conducted a pooled analysis to evaluate the association between baseline diabetes and risk of death from all cancers and site-specific cancers, in 19 Asian prospective cohorts in the Asia Cohort Consortium (ACC).
Selected characteristics of participating cohorts
No. of participants
Mean follow-up (years)
Mean age at baseline (years)
Male sex (%)
Ever smokers (%)
Diabetes at baseline (%)
No. of cancer deaths
3 Pref. Aichi
3 Pref. Miyagi
Relevant data from each of the participating cohorts were transferred and harmonised at the ACC coordinating centre at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center. Harmonisation involved several rounds of discussions to ensure that variables were correctly interpreted and extracted. Data were checked for illogical or missing values, and queries were sent back for clarification. The distributions of individual variables were explored to identify false or implausible values. All personal identifiers were removed, but study-specific ID numbers were retained to facilitate referral of all queries back to the individual cohort.
Diabetes and outcome data
The 19 participating cohorts included a total of 847,009 individuals. Self-reported data on diabetes at baseline were collected from all cohorts. Available data on other indicators of diabetes in some of the cohorts support the overall validity of these self-reported data. For instance, in the Bangladeshi cohort, glycosuria was measured in 11,122 (95%) members, and 62% of participants who tested positive for glycosuria also self-reported as having been diagnosed with diabetes by a physician, while 99.1% of those who tested negative reported no such history . The result is comparable with that from high-income countries such as Japan, where the sensitivity and specificity of the questionnaire for diabetic hyperglycaemia were 46% and 98%, respectively [15, 20].
All the participating cohorts were required to have available baseline data on diabetes status (self-reported), BMI (measured or self-reported), cigarette-smoking status, age, sex, follow-up time, vital status and cause of death (ICD-9 [www.icd9data.com/2007/Volume1] or ICD-10 [www.who.int/classifications/icd/en/]). In the present analysis, we excluded participants with data missing on age (n = 528), baseline diabetes (n = 73,178) and vital status (n = 2775), and those for whom data on follow-up duration were invalid or missing (n = 2947). After these exclusions, 771,297 participants remained (391,619 men and 379,678 women). Information on the types of diabetes (i.e. type 1 or type 2) was not available; however, given that type 1 diabetes accounts for less than 3% of total diabetes in Asia  and that we included adult cohorts only, we assume the large majority would have had type 2 diabetes. Additional data were available from selected cohorts on alcohol drinking (17 cohorts), education (14 cohorts), urban/rural residence (18 cohorts), duration of diabetes (six cohorts), and diabetes treatment (four cohorts).
Cancer death was ascertained from the underlying causes of death recorded on death certificates or death records in East Asian cohorts and in the Mumbai cohort. A validated verbal autopsy questionnaire was used in the Bangladesh cohort . Outcomes of interest included: death from any cancer and cancers of the oesophagus, stomach, colorectum, colon, rectum, liver, bile duct, pancreas, lung, breast, endometrium, cervix, ovary, prostate, bladder, kidney and thyroid, as well as lymphoma and leukaemia (electronic supplementary material [ESM] Table 1). Cancers of interest were selected based on prior literature on the association between diabetes and the risk of death from cancer [2, 23].
To examine the relationship between diabetes and the risk of death from cancer, we estimated HRs and 95% CIs based on Cox proportional hazards regression models that combined studies in a meta-analysis of individual participant data [24, 25]. The assumption of proportional hazards was examined by testing the cross-product terms between covariate variables and log function of survival time within individual cohorts; p values for all the terms were >0.10. In all analyses, the effect of diabetes on the risk of death from cancer was taken to be cohort-specific, assuming that the log-HR associated with diabetes had a fixed-effect component in each cohort that was common to all cohorts and a cohort-specific random effect that was normally distributed with mean zero.
Potential confounders included baseline age, sex, cigarette smoking (never/ever), BMI, alcohol consumption (never/ever), educational attainment (no formal education, primary, secondary, trade/technical, university degree, postgraduate degree, other) and urban residence. Likelihood-based methods were used to test for heterogeneity across studies or geographic regions by comparing models with and without interactions between cohort or geographic region and baseline diabetes status. Stratified analyses were conducted by sex. To evaluate the potential effect of reverse causation, analyses excluded person-years and deaths with fewer than 3 years of follow-up.
For any cancer and cancers with sufficient number of deaths among those with diabetes (n > 70) that were also associated with diabetes status in the main analyses, including colorectal cancer, liver cancer, gallbladder cancer, pancreatic cancer and breast cancer, we further performed stratified analyses among East Asians (China, Taiwan, Singapore, South Korea and Japan) and South Asians (Bangladesh and India); by baseline age (<60 or ≥60 years, the median among cancer deaths in the combined East and South Asians); by baseline smoking status (never/ever); by baseline alcohol consumption status (never/ever); and by baseline BMI (22.8 kg/m2, the median among cancer deaths), to evaluate whether the influence of diabetes was similar in different subgroups. In cohorts with the available information, sensitivity analyses were also conducted to: (1) further control for baseline status of hypertension or cardiovascular disease (CVD); (2) further control for baseline status of cancer; (3) exclude studies that were initially clinical trials; and (4) exclude prevalent cases of CVD and cancer at baseline. In a subgroup of six cohorts (n = 243,214) with data on age at first diagnosis of diabetes, diabetes duration at baseline was calculated as the difference between age at first diagnosis and age at enrolment. We conducted analyses to estimate HRs, comparing those with different diabetes duration (<5 or ≥5 years) with those without diabetes at baseline. A separate model was also conducted including only the diabetes cases to compare the risk of death from cancer by diabetes duration (<5 vs ≥5 years) and to estimate the p values of the comparisons. Similar analyses were conducted in a subgroup of four cohorts (n = 198,440) with data on current treatment of diabetes (yes/no). All statistical analyses were conducted using SAS, version 9.4 (SAS Institute, Cary, NC, USA) or Stata, version 14.0 (StataCorp LP, College Station, TX, USA). All tests were two-sided and p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
Association between diabetes at baseline and site-specific cancer mortality in Asia
Type of cancer
Excluding first 3 years of follow-up
Deaths (n) with diabetes
Deaths (n) without diabetes
HR (95% CI)a
Deaths (n) with diabetes
Deaths (n) without diabetes
HR (95% CI)a
1.26 (1.21, 1.31)
1.25 (1.20, 1.31)
1.09 (0.85, 1.38)
1.07 (0.81, 1.42)
1.08 (0.95, 1.23)
1.11 (0.96, 1.29)
1.41 (1.26, 1.57)
1.36 (1.20, 1.53)
1.50 (1.30, 1.73)
1.47 (1.25, 1.72)
1.30 (1.07, 1.58)
1.23 (0.99, 1.54)
2.05 (1.77, 2.38)
2.02 (1.74, 2.35)
1.41 (1.04, 1.92)
1.42 (1.02, 1.96)
1.33 (1.10, 1.61)
1.35 (1.10, 1.66)
1.53 (1.32, 1.77)
1.57 (1.34, 1.83)
0.98 (0.89, 1.09)
0.96 (0.86, 1.07)
1.72 (1.34, 2.19)
1.95 (1.49, 2.56)
2.73 (1.53, 4.85)
2.09 (1.05, 4.12)
1.70 (0.90, 3.23)
1.82 (0.80, 4.13)
1.60 (1.06, 2.42)
1.85 (1.19, 2.88)
1.41 (1.09, 1.82)
1.37 (1.03, 1.82)
1.38 (0.90, 2.10)
1.45 (0.90, 2.34)
1.84 (1.28, 2.64)
1.89 (1.34, 2.68)
1.99 (1.03, 3.86)
1.97 (1.00, 3.90)
1.39 (1.04, 1.86)
1.51 (1.11, 2.04)
1.30 (0.90, 1.88)
1.47 (1.00, 2.16)
We further explored the relationship of duration and treatment of diabetes with the risk of death from cancer in cohorts with available data. Analyses were done for cancers with ten or more deaths among diabetic participants. With the exception of breast cancer, among diabetic participants the associations between diabetes of ≥5 years’ duration at baseline and the risk of death from any cancer and colorectal cancer, liver cancer or pancreatic cancer were weaker than those related to diabetes of <5 years’ duration; however, none of the differences in estimates was statistically significant (ESM Table 2). In cohorts with data on current treatment, participants currently treated for diabetes, compared with those not currently treated, tended to have a greater risk of death from any cancer and cancers of the liver, gallbladder and pancreas; however, the risk difference reached statistical significance for death from any cancer only (p = 0.03; ESM Table 3). Results from sensitivity analyses excluding studies that were initially clinical trials (Linxian General Population Trial Cohort Study) were essentially the same (data not shown).
In this pooled analysis of 19 Asian cohorts including more than 771,000 participants followed for up to 21 years, diabetes was associated with a 26% increase in the risk of death from any cancer. Specifically, diabetes was related to an increased risk of death from colorectal cancer, liver cancer, bile duct cancer, gallbladder cancer, pancreatic cancer, breast cancer, endometrial cancer, ovarian cancer, prostate cancer, kidney cancer, thyroid cancer and lymphoma. The positive associations for any cancer, colorectal cancer, liver cancer, gallbladder cancer, pancreatic cancer and breast cancer remained across different strata of BMI, smoking status and alcohol drinking status. Consistently stronger associations were seen in individuals <60 years at enrolment than in their older counterparts for liver cancer, gallbladder cancer and pancreatic cancer.
Several studies have addressed the association of diabetes with the risk of death from any cancer. A pooled analysis of 97 prospective cohorts in 820,900 whites from the Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration (ERFC) reported an HR of 1.25 (95% CI 1.19, 1.31) for death from any cancer in people with diabetes compared with those without diabetes . In a prospective cohort of one million US adults in Cancer Prevention Study II (CPS II), diabetes was associated with increases in the risk of death from any cancer of 7% and 11% in men and women, respectively . A meta-analysis reported a summary relative risk of death from any cancer associated with diabetes of 1.32 (95% CI 1.20, 1.45) based on three studies in Asians, and 1.16 (95% CI 1.01, 1.34) based on 14 studies in non-Asians . In the present pooled analysis of Asians, we report an HR of 1.26 (95% CI 1.21, 1.31) for death from any cancer associated with diabetes. In CPS II, diabetes was positively related to death from cancers of the colon, liver or intrahepatic bile duct, pancreas, breast, endometrium, prostate (reduced risk) and bladder (in men only) . The ERFC study reported that diabetes was moderately associated with death from cancers of the colorectum, liver, pancreas, breast, ovary, lung and bladder . Our observed cancer-specific associations are largely consistent with these reports from two large studies in cohorts from Western countries on digestive cancers (including cancers of the colorectum, liver, bile duct, gallbladder and pancreas), as well as breast cancer. These data together suggest that the influence of diabetes on the risk of death from overall cancer, digestive cancers and breast cancer is largely similar in Asians and in developed Western countries.
The moderate associations between diabetes and the risk of death from liver and pancreatic cancer observed in our analyses are consistent with previous studies [2, 28]. A recent meta-analysis of 25 prospective studies of Asians and whites reported a twofold higher risk of liver cancer associated with diabetes, after controlling for alcohol intake, cirrhosis and viral hepatitis B or C infection . However, reverse causation has been suspected, as mechanistic studies found that pancreatic cancer causes paraneoplastic beta cell dysfunction by shedding exosomes containing adrenomedullin and CA19-9 into circulation that inhibit insulin secretion . In our subgroup analyses, although we observed that diabetes of short duration was more strongly related to the risk of cancer compared with diabetes of long duration, the difference was not statistically significant and the risk associated with diabetes of long duration remained elevated. A recent meta-analysis of 36 cohort studies reported that summary relative risks of pancreatic cancer remained elevated when excluding diabetes of short duration , suggesting that reverse causation does not account for all the association. The higher risk of liver cancer and pancreatic cancer in diabetes could potentially be related to exposure of these organs to particularly elevated insulin in people with diabetes, particularly if the tumour cells remain sensitive to insulin [23, 32]. In the present study, a stronger association seen in younger participants for liver, gallbladder and pancreatic cancer also supports metabolic dysfunction (more predominant in the early years of diabetes because of insulin resistance ) as being involved in the association between diabetes and these cancers. Taken together, given the magnitude of the associations and the consistent data across studies and different populations, diabetes control should be considered in cancer prevention for these cancers in Asians, especially for liver cancer, which has a high incidence in Asians.
Available data on the association between diabetes and colorectal cancer mortality are limited but are generally consistent with our findings [26, 34]. In addition to hyperinsulinaemia, hypothesised mechanisms include the slower bowel transit time and the elevated faecal bile acid concentrations related to diabetes . We also found that diabetes was related to a 30–40% increased risk of death from gallbladder cancer and bile duct cancer, consistent with previous meta-analyses in whites and Asians [35, 36]. Aside from hyperinsulinaemia and resultant high levels of insulin-like growth factors, possible explanations for the increased risk include the propensity of diabetic individuals to develop gallstones , and increased production of biliary cholesterol and lithogenic bile salts as a result of insulin resistance, which also directly promotes the formation of gallstones .
We observed positive associations of diabetes with the risk of death from breast cancer, endometrial cancer, ovarian cancer, prostate cancer, kidney cancer, thyroid cancer and lymphoma. Hormone-related mechanisms, such as increases in bioavailable oestrogen, stimulation of endometrial stromal cells, increases in androgen synthesis and increases in endogenous sex steroids  due to increased circulating insulin, may underlie the associations for breast and other female cancers. Cumulative epidemiological evidence suggests an association between diabetes and breast cancer . Genetic factors have emerged that potentially contribute to the associations with some female cancers [39, 40]. Data on ovarian cancer are less well established, possibly due to small sample sizes in existing studies, including the present analysis. Further large studies are needed to confirm and investigate effect modifiers for the influence of diabetes on less common hormone-related female cancers such as ovarian cancer in Asians.
Consistent with other prospective studies of cancer mortality in both whites [27, 41] and Asians , we did not observe an association between diabetes and the risk of lung cancer mortality. The association with mortality from oesophageal cancer and stomach cancer in whites and Asians has been generally null [26, 27, 42], except for a South Korean study, which found a positive association between diabetes and the risk of death from both cancers in men . By contrast, we observed an increased risk of death from these two cancers that was confined to women. The lack of consistency may be caused by the heterogeneous nature of these cancers (each has subtypes with different aetiologies). Future studies are needed to investigate associations by subtypes of cancer and to explore whether other sex-specific risk differences, such as in the pattern and extent of alcohol drinking, can explain the difference by sex. Evidence of the association between diabetes and kidney cancer, thyroid cancer and lymphoma has also been inconsistent, although meta-analyses have suggested positive associations between diabetes and these cancers [43, 44, 45]. Two cohort studies in Asians reported a statistically significant increase in the risk of thyroid cancer incidence or mortality among diabetic patients [10, 13]. We observed moderate associations for kidney (HR 1.84; 95% CI 1.28, 2.64) and thyroid (HR 1.99; 95% CI 1.03, 3.86) cancer in Asians, suggesting that the effects of diabetes on these cancers may be greater than those observed in whites. However, future larger studies that include information on subtypes of these cancers are needed to confirm the associations in Asians.
For prostate cancer, most of the studies that found an inverse association were conducted in whites [27, 46]. Studies in Asians generated inconsistent findings, and a meta-analysis of studies in Asians concluded that there was a positive association . The influence of diabetes on prostate cancer in Asians and whites appears different, possibly due to differences in incidence rates, screening, diagnosis and treatment in the two populations. In addition, because the outcomes in this study are based on mortality data, they reflect the combined influence of diabetes on disease incidence and survival. Additional studies with incidence data in Asians are warranted, as such data are critical for prostate cancer, for which there is a greater difference between cancer incidence and cancer mortality, compared with other cancers such as liver and pancreatic cancers, which have a shorter survival time.
Major strengths of the present study included a large sample size of diverse Asian populations, allowing us to conduct several sensitivity analyses and stratified analyses by sex, age, smoking status and alcohol consumption. In addition, we had detailed data at the individual level from all cohorts for covariate adjustments and exploration of heterogeneity, avoiding some drawbacks of meta-analysis based on aggregate data from published results. In addition, we included a comprehensive list of causes of cancer death. A limitation of our study is the use of self-reported diabetes status and the lack of update on diabetes status during follow-up. This might have resulted in non-differential misclassification. In a subgroup analysis, we found that the association between treated diabetes and cancer was stronger than that between untreated diabetes and cancer, suggesting that the use of a more stringent definition of diabetes may reduce this misclassification. The use of self-reported information prevented us from distinguishing between type 1 and type 2 diabetes; however, type 2 diabetes accounts for more than 90% of diabetes [16, 48]. Certain diabetes treatments have been reported to increase (e.g. exogenous insulin) or decrease (e.g. metformin) the risk of cancer [23, 49, 50], but our pooled analyses cannot address the influence of specific treatments, due to the lack of data. We had data on the absence and presence of current treatment only in a small subset of cohorts. Finally, we have limited sample sizes to evaluate the influence of diabetes on site-specific cancers in South Asians. Given that South Asian populations are undergoing an epidemiological transition, there is an emerging need for cohort studies to be conducted for cancer risk factors.
We observed that diabetes was related to an increased risk of death from any cancer, colorectal cancer, liver cancer, bile duct cancer, gallbladder cancer, pancreatic cancer, breast cancer, endometrial cancer, ovarian cancer, prostate cancer, kidney cancer, thyroid cancer and lymphoma in Asians. The findings indicate a potential need for appropriate cancer screening among individuals with diabetes and a greater emphasis on lifestyle modifications related to cancer mortality not only in Western populations but also in Asians. We also found an increased risk associated with diabetes from other cancers, which requires future confirmation.
The authors would like to thank all research team members and participants of each cohort study for their contribution to this pooled analysis.
Duality of interest
The datasets generated and/or analysed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.
This work was supported by the US National Cancer Institute at the National Institutes of Health (R03CA150038) and by the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center. The cohorts participating in the pooled analysis were supported by the following grants: Three-Prefecture Cohort Study Aichi (Japanese Ministry of the Environment); Japan Collaborative Cohort Study (National Cancer Center Research and Development Fund, Grant-in-Aid for Cancer Research; Grant for Health Services and Grant for Comprehensive Research on Cardiovascular and Life-Style Related Diseases from the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, Japan; Grant for Scientific Research from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan); Japan Public Health Center-Based Study 1 and 2 (National Cancer Center Research and Development Fund [23-A-31 (toku) and 26-A-2 (since 2011)]; Grant-in-Aid for Cancer Research from the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, Japan [from 1989 to 2010]); Three-Prefecture Cohort Study Miyagi, Miyagi Cohort Study and Ohsaki National Health Insurance Beneficiaries Cohort Study (Grants-in-Aid for Cancer Research and for the Third Term Comprehensive Ten-Year Strategy for Cancer Control [H21-3jigan-ippan-003], Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, Japan); Takayama Study (National Cancer Center Research and Development Fund; National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute [U01HL072507]; Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences); Shanghai Cohort Study (National Institutes of Health [R01CA144034, U01CA182876]); Shanghai Men’s Health Study and Shanghai Women’s Health Study (National Institutes of Health [R37CA070867, UM1CA182910, R01CA82729, UM1CA173640]); Community-Based Cancer Screening Program (National Science Council and Department of Health, Taiwan); Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors Two-Township Study (Department of Health, Taiwan [DOH80-27, DOH81-021, DOH8202-1027, DOH83-TD-015 and DOH84-TD-006]); Korea Multicenter Cancer Cohort Study (Ministry of Education, Science and Technology, South Korea [2009-0087452]; National Research Foundation of Korea [2009-0087452]); Singapore Chinese Health Study (National Institutes of Health [R01CA144034, U01CA182876]); Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (National Institutes of Health [P42ES010349, R01CA102484, R01CA107431]); Mumbai Cohort Study (International Agency for Research on Cancer, France; Clinical Trial Service Unit, UK; World Health Organization). The funders had no role in the study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
The authors declare that there is no duality of interest associated with this manuscript.
YC conceived and designed the study. FW and ES analysed the data. PCG, NS, AT, X-OS, W-PK, Y-BX, YT, KS, SKP, KM, CN, YS, Y-LQ, S-LY, RW, M-HS, W-HP, MSP, ST, HC, J-MY, Y-TG, IT, SK, HI, KW, Y-OA, K-YY, HA, KSC, WZ, MI and DK contributed to acquisition of data. YL, MS, HNL, PB and JDP contributed to the interpretation of data. YC and FW wrote the manuscript. YL, MS, HNL, PB, WZ, X-OS and JDP revised the manuscript for important intellectual content. YC is the study guarantor. All authors contributed to the interpretation of data and revision of the manuscript, and approved the final version of the manuscript. YC had full access to all the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
|Funder Name||Grant Number||Funding Note|
|National Institutes of Health|