, Volume 58, Issue 2, pp 265–271 | Cite as

Comparison of HOMA-IR, HOMA-β% and disposition index between US white men and Japanese men in Japan: the ERA JUMP study

  • Vasudha Ahuja
  • Takashi Kadowaki
  • Rhobert W. Evans
  • Aya Kadota
  • Tomonori Okamura
  • Samar R. El Khoudary
  • Akira Fujiyoshi
  • Emma J. M. Barinas-Mitchell
  • Takashi Hisamatsu
  • Abhishek Vishnu
  • Katsuyuki Miura
  • Hiroshi Maegawa
  • Aiman El-Saed
  • Atsunori Kashiwagi
  • Lewis H. Kuller
  • Hirotsugu Ueshima
  • Akira SekikawaEmail author
  • for the ERA JUMP Study Group



At the same level of BMI, white people have less visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and are less susceptible to developing type 2 diabetes than Japanese people. No previous population-based studies have compared insulin resistance and insulin secretion between these two races in a standardised manner that accounts for VAT. We compared HOMA-IR, HOMA of beta cell function (HOMA-β%) and disposition index (DI) in US white men and Japanese men in Japan.


We conducted a population-based, cross-sectional study, comprising 298 white men and 294 Japanese men aged 40–49 years without diabetes. Insulin, glucose, VAT and other measurements were performed at the University of Pittsburgh. We used ANCOVA to compare geometric means of HOMA-IR, HOMA-β% and DI, adjusting for VAT and other covariates.


White men had higher HOMA-IR, HOMA-β% and DI than Japanese men, and the difference remained significant (p < 0.01) after adjusting for VAT (geometric mean [95% CI]): 3.1 (2.9, 3.2) vs 2.5 (2.4, 2.6), 130.8 (124.6, 137.3) vs 86.7 (82.5, 91.0), and 42.4 (41.0, 44.0) vs 34.8 (33.6, 36.0), respectively. Moreover, HOMA-IR, HOMA-β% and DI were significantly higher in white men even after further adjustment for BMI, impaired fasting glucose and other risk factors.


The higher VAT-adjusted DI in white men than Japanese men may partly explain lower susceptibility of white people than Japanese people to developing type 2 diabetes. The results, however, should be interpreted with caution because the assessment of insulin indices was made using fasting samples and adjustment was not made for baseline glucose tolerance. Further studies using formal methods to evaluate insulin indices are warranted.


Cross-sectional analysis Epidemiology Humans Insulin resistance Japanese Pathophysiology Race Type 2 diabetes Visceral adipose tissue White race 



C-reactive protein


Disposition index


EBCT and Risk Factor Assessment among Japanese and U.S. Men in the Post World War II Birth Cohort


HOMA of beta cell function


Impaired fasting glucose


Impaired glucose tolerance


Visceral adipose tissue



This research was funded by the National Institute of Health (RO1 HL68200) and from the Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (B16790335 and A13307016).

Duality of interest

The authors declare that there is no duality of interest associated with this manuscript.

Contribution statement

VA, TK, RWE, AKad, TO, AF, EJMB-M, TH, AV, KM, HM, AKash, LHK, HU, AE-S and AS contributed to conception and design. TK, TO, EJMB-M, HM, AKash, HU and AE-S collected the data. VA, SREK and AS analysed and interpreted the data. VA drafted the article. All authors critically revised the article for intellectual content. All authors approved the final version. VA and AS are guarantors of this work.

Supplementary material

125_2014_3414_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (176 kb)
ESM Table 1 (PDF 175 kb)
125_2014_3414_MOESM2_ESM.pdf (92 kb)
ESM Table 2 (PDF 92 kb)
125_2014_3414_MOESM3_ESM.pdf (234 kb)
ESM Table 3 (PDF 234 kb)
125_2014_3414_MOESM4_ESM.pdf (235 kb)
ESM Table 4 (PDF 234 kb)
125_2014_3414_MOESM5_ESM.pdf (325 kb)
ESM Fig. 1 (PDF 324 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vasudha Ahuja
    • 1
  • Takashi Kadowaki
    • 2
  • Rhobert W. Evans
    • 3
  • Aya Kadota
    • 2
  • Tomonori Okamura
    • 2
    • 4
  • Samar R. El Khoudary
    • 3
  • Akira Fujiyoshi
    • 2
  • Emma J. M. Barinas-Mitchell
    • 3
  • Takashi Hisamatsu
    • 2
  • Abhishek Vishnu
    • 1
  • Katsuyuki Miura
    • 2
  • Hiroshi Maegawa
    • 5
  • Aiman El-Saed
    • 3
    • 6
  • Atsunori Kashiwagi
    • 5
  • Lewis H. Kuller
    • 3
  • Hirotsugu Ueshima
    • 2
  • Akira Sekikawa
    • 1
    Email author
  • for the ERA JUMP Study Group
  1. 1.Department of EpidemiologyUniversity of PittsburghPittsburghUSA
  2. 2.Department of Public HealthShiga University of Medical ScienceOtsuJapan
  3. 3.Department of EpidemiologyUniversity of PittsburghPittsburghUSA
  4. 4.Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, School of MedicineKeio UniversityTokyoJapan
  5. 5.Department of MedicineShiga University of Medical ScienceOtsuJapan
  6. 6.Infection Prevention and Control DepartmentKing Abdulaziz Medical CityRiyadhSaudi Arabia

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