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Cerebrospinal fluid levels of Alzheimer’s disease biomarkers in middle-aged patients with type 1 diabetes

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Abstract

Aims/hypothesis

Type 1 diabetes is associated with moderate cognitive decline and cerebral alterations and may lead to an increased risk of dementia, including Alzheimer’s disease. This study aimed to investigate the levels of risk markers for Alzheimer’s disease in middle-aged patients with type 1 diabetes and controls, and their potential associations with cognitive and cerebral measures.

Methods

Levels of β-amyloid (Aβ) 42, Tau, phosphorylated Tau (pTau), the soluble form of low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (sLRP1) and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (MCSF) were quantified by ELISA in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) collected from 37 patients with type 1 diabetes and 15 controls. Associations between biomarkers and determinants of cognitive function and white matter integrity were assessed using hierarchical regression analysis controlling for age, HbA1c and estimated intelligence quotient (IQ).

Results

CSF levels of pTau, Aβ42 and LRP1 were higher in patients with type 1 diabetes than in controls (all p < 0.05). There was a trend towards increased Tau levels in patients with type 1 diabetes (p = 0.056), while CSF levels of MCSF were similar between patients with type 1 diabetes and controls. Regression analysis showed that elevated CSF sLRP1 levels were associated with better attention (β = 0.518; p = 0.002) and a better speed of information-processing (β = 0.368; p = 0.034), as well as increased integrity of the white matter of the right inferior fronto-occipital tract (β = 0.395; p = 0.022). Furthermore, elevated Tau levels were associated with decreased integrity of the white matter of right inferior fronto-occipital tract (β = –0.584; p = 0.002).

Conclusions/interpretation

CSF levels of biomarkers for Alzheimer’s disease are altered in patients with type 1 diabetes compared with controls, but the observed profile does not match the profile characterising pre-Alzheimer’s disease patients.

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Abbreviations

Aβ:

β-Amyloid

ApoE:

Apolipoprotein E

CSF:

Cerebrospinal fluid

IQ:

Intelligence quotient

LRP1:

Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1

MCSF:

Macrophage colony-stimulating factor

pTau:

Phosphorylated Tau

RAGE:

Receptor for advanced glycation end-products

sLRP1:

Soluble form of low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1

sRAGE:

Soluble form of receptor for advanced glycation end-products

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Acknowledgements

During the review process of this paper, professor Michaela Diamant passed away at the age of only 51 years. She was principal investigator and driving force of this study. This paper is dedicated to her memory. Please see her obituary in Diabetologia [26].

Funding

This study was supported by grant 2006.00.051 of the Dutch Diabetes Research Foundation, by a grant of the European Foundation for the Study of Diabetes, and by the Ministry of Science and Research of the State of North Rhine-Westphalia (MIWF NRW) and the German Federal Ministry of Health (BMG).

Duality of interest

CET is member of the medical advisory boards of Innogenetics and Roche. The other authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest regarding the study.

Contribution statement

DMO wrote and drafted the manuscript and participated in biomarker determinations and data analysis. EvD wrote and drafted the manuscript, participated in the design of the study, was responsible for participant recruitment and performed the statistical analysis. SNMS and LvG contributed to the data acquisition by performing the lumbar punctures by which CSF was obtained, and reviewed the manuscript. DHW performed biomarker analyses and reviewed the manuscript. ACM, FJS, MK, FB and PS participated in the design of the study and reviewed the manuscript. CET participated in the design and supervised the CSF analyses of Aβ42, Tau and pTau, and reviewed the manuscript. PJWP participated in the design of the white matter integrity analyses, supervised these analyses, interpreted the data and reviewed the manuscript. MD designed the study, obtained funding and reviewed the manuscript. All authors approved the final version of the manuscript. DMO and EvD are the guarantors of this work and, as such, had full access to all the data in the study and take responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.

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Correspondence to D. Margriet Ouwens.

Additional information

M. Ouwens and E. van Duinkerken contributed equally to this study.

This paper is dedicated to the memory of Professor Michaela Diamant.

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Ouwens, D.M., van Duinkerken, E., Schoonenboom, S.N.M. et al. Cerebrospinal fluid levels of Alzheimer’s disease biomarkers in middle-aged patients with type 1 diabetes. Diabetologia 57, 2208–2214 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00125-014-3333-6

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00125-014-3333-6

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