, Volume 57, Issue 10, pp 2038–2047 | Cite as

Effects of calcium–vitamin D co-supplementation on metabolic profiles in vitamin D insufficient people with type 2 diabetes: a randomised controlled clinical trial

  • Marjan Tabesh
  • Leila Azadbakht
  • Elham Faghihimani
  • Maryam Tabesh
  • Ahmad EsmaillzadehEmail author



This study was performed to assess the effects of vitamin D and calcium supplementation on the metabolic profiles of vitamin D insufficient persons with type 2 diabetes.


In a parallel designed randomised placebo-controlled clinical trial, a total of 118 non-smoker individuals with type 2 diabetes and insufficient 25-hydroxyvitamin D, aged >30 years, were recruited from the Isfahan Endocrine and Metabolism Research Centre. Participants were randomly assigned to four groups receiving: (1) 50,000 U/week vitamin D + calcium placebo; (2) 1,000 mg/day calcium + vitamin D placebo; (3) 50,000 U/week vitamin D + 1,000 mg/day calcium; or (4) vitamin D placebo + calcium placebo for 8 weeks. A study technician carried out the random allocations using a random numbers table. All investigators, participants and laboratory technicians were blinded to the random assignments. All participants provided 3 days of dietary records and 3 days of physical activity records throughout the intervention. Blood samples were taken to quantify glycaemic and lipid profiles at study baseline and after 8 weeks of intervention.


30 participants were randomised in each group. During the intervention, one participant from the calcium group and one from the vitamin D group were excluded because of personal problems. Calcium–vitamin D co-supplementation resulted in reduced serum insulin (changes from baseline: −14.8 ± 3.9 pmol/l, p = 0.01), HbA1c [−0.70 ± 0.19% (−8.0 ± 0.4 mmol/mol), p = 0.02], HOMA-IR (−0.46 ± 0.20, p = 0.001), LDL-cholesterol (−10.36 ± 0.10 mmol/l, p = 0.04) and total/HDL-cholesterol levels (−0.91 ± 0.16, p = 0.03) compared with other groups. We found a significant increase in QUICKI (0.025 ± 0.01, p = 0.004), HOMA of beta cell function (HOMA-B; 11.8 ± 12.17, p = 0.001) and HDL-cholesterol (0.46 ± 0.05 mmol/l, p = 0.03) in the calcium–vitamin D group compared with others.


Joint calcium and vitamin D supplementation might improve the glycaemic status and lipid profiles of vitamin D insufficient people with type 2 diabetes.

Trial registration: NCT01662193

Funding: Clinical Research Council, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran


Calcium Glycaemia Metabolic profiles Type 2 diabetes Vitamin D 



25-Hydroxyvitamin D


Fasting plasma glucose


HOMA of beta cell function


Isfahan Endocrine and Metabolism Research Center


Metabolic equivalents



The authors would like to thank the Food Security Research Center of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. This paper is based on an MSc thesis (190136) from Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Marjan Tabesh was the author of the MSc thesis.


The study was funded by the Clinical Research Council, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran

Duality of interest

The authors declare that there is no duality of interest associated with this manuscript.

Contribution statement

Marj. T contributed to conception, design, statistical analyses, data interpretation, and manuscript drafting for this study. Marj. T, Mary. T, LA and EF contributed to the data collection and manuscript drafting. All authors approved the final manuscript for submission. AE is the guarantor of this work.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marjan Tabesh
    • 1
    • 2
  • Leila Azadbakht
    • 1
    • 2
  • Elham Faghihimani
    • 3
  • Maryam Tabesh
    • 1
  • Ahmad Esmaillzadeh
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Food Security Research CenterIsfahan University of Medical SciencesIsfahanIran
  2. 2.Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutrition and Food ScienceIsfahan University of Medical SciencesIsfahanIran
  3. 3.Isfahan Endocrine and Metabolism Research CenterIsfahan University of Medical SciencesIsfahanIran

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