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Table 1 HRs and 95% CIs for incident type 2 diabetes according to updated 4 year changes in coffee and tea intake

From: Changes in coffee intake and subsequent risk of type 2 diabetes: three large cohorts of US men and women

Intake/study Changes in frequency of consumption HR per 1 serving
Moderate to large decrease (>1 cup/day) Small to moderate decrease (1 cup/week–1 cup/day) No change (±1 cup/week)a Small to moderate increase (1 cup/week–1 cup/day) Moderate to large increase (>1 cup/day)
Coffee
 HPFS
   n 4,318 3,451 13,833 3,050 3,107  
  Cases/person-years 317/61,343 199/49,540 818/198,710 182/44,571 188/45,520  
  Multivariable adjusted 1b 1.22 (1.05, 1.43) 0.88 (0.75, 1.04) 1.00 0.92 (0.78, 1.09) 0.97 (0.82, 1.14) 0.94 (0.90, 0.99)
  Multivariable adjusted 2c 1.22 (1.05, 1.42) 0.91 (0.77, 1.07) 1.00 0.92 (0.78, 1.10) 0.93 (0.79, 1.10) 0.94 (0.89, 0.98)
 NHS
   n 9,372 6,343 23,224 4,545 4,980  
  Cases/person-years 654/137,935 449/93,692 1,745/343,597 343/67,890 291/74,601  
  Multivariable adjusted 1b 1.17 (1.06, 1.30) 0.98 (0.88, 1.09) 1.00 1.04 (0.92, 1.16) 0.84 (0.74, 0.96) 0.94 (0.91, 0.97)
  Multivariable adjusted 2c 1.17 (1.05, 1.29) 0.99 (0.89, 1.11) 1.00 1.05 (0.94, 1.18) 0.86 (0.76, 0.98) 0.95 (0.92, 0.98)
 NHS II
   n 7,132 5,214 25,536 4,786 4,841  
  Cases/person-years 278/80,074 236/59,562 1,201/293,809 195/55,872 173/56,604  
  Multivariable adjusted 1b 1.16 (0.99, 1.36) 0.96 (0.82, 1.13) 1.00 0.86 (0.73, 1.01) 0.86 (0.73, 1.02) 0.94 (0.90, 0.99)
  Multivariable adjusted 2c 1.10 (0.94, 1.30) 0.94 (0.80, 1.11) 1.00 0.90 (0.76, 1.06) 0.90 (0.76, 1.07) 0.97 (0.92, 1.01)
 Pooledd
  Multivariable adjusted 1b 1.18 (1.10, 1.28) 0.95 (0.88, 1.03) 1.00 0.95 (0.84, 1.06) 0.88 (0.81, 0.96) 0.94 (0.92, 0.96)
  Multivariable adjusted 2c 1.17 (1.08, 1.26) 0.96 (0.89, 1.04) 1.00 0.97 (0.87, 1.08) 0.89 (0.82, 0.97) 0.95 (0.93, 0.97)
Tea
 HPFS
   n 1,375 3,510 18,735 3,016 1,123  
  Cases/person-years 84/19,634 229/50,421 1,125/269,457 187/43,859 79/16,313  
  Multivariable adjusted 1b 1.00 (0.78, 1.30) 1.10 (0.91, 1.33) 1.00 1.03 (0.88, 1.21) 1.20 (0.94, 1.53) 1.02 (0.95, 1.10)
  Multivariable adjusted 2c 0.94 (0.73, 1.22) 1.10 (0.91, 1.32) 1.00 1.03 (0.88, 1.21) 1.15 (0.90, 1.46) 1.02 (0.95, 1.10)
 NHS
   n 3,467 7,159 29,011 5,991 2,836  
  Cases/person-years 256/51,164 548/105,883 2,076/429,649 395/88,888 207/42,131  
  Multivariable adjusted 1b 1.06 (0.90, 1.25) 1.04 (0.92, 1.17) 1.00 0.90 (0.81, 1.01) 1.06 (0.91, 1.23) 0.98 (0.94, 1.02)
  Multivariable adjusted 2c 1.02 (0.87, 1.20) 1.00 (0.89, 1.12) 1.00 0.90 (0.80, 1.00) 1.01 (0.87, 1.18) 0.98 (0.94, 1.02)
 NHS II
   n 4,530 8,953 23,211 7,440 3,376  
  Cases/person-years 223/51,672 432/102,393 957/266,493 325/86,328 146/39,034  
  Multivariable adjusted 1b 1.18 (0.96, 1.44) 1.19 (1.03, 1.37) 1.00 1.05 (0.92, 1.20) 0.95 (0.79, 1.15) 0.96 (0.91, 1.00)
  Multivariable adjusted 2c 1.12 (0.92, 1.37) 1.18 (1.02, 1.36) 1.00 1.05 (0.92, 1.20) 0.94 (0.78, 1.13) 0.96 (0.92, 1.00)
 Pooledd
  Multivariable adjusted 1b 1.08 (0.97, 1.22) 1.10 (1.01, 1.19) 1.00 0.98 (0.89, 1.09) 1.05 (0.94, 1.17) 0.98 (0.95, 1.01)
  Multivariable adjusted 2c 1.03 (0.92, 1.16) 1.08 (0.97, 1.20) 1.00 0.98 (0.88, 1.09) 1.01 (0.91, 1.12) 0.98 (0.95, 1.01)
  1. aReference category
  2. bAdjusted for age, family history of diabetes (yes/no), race (white/non-white), postmenopausal hormone use (premenopausal, postmenopausal current user, postmenopausal never/past user, missing), physical examination in the previous cycle (yes/no), change in smoking status (never to never, never to current, current to current, current to past, past to current, past to past), baseline alcohol intake (0, 0.1–4.9, 5–9.9, 10–14.9, ≥15 g/day), change in alcohol intake (quintiles), baseline physical activity (<3, 3–8.9, 9–17.9, 18–26.9, ≥27 metabolic equivalents of task (METS)/week), change in physical activity (quintiles), history of hypertension and hypercholesterolaemia (yes/no), baseline and 4 year changes in beverage intake (quantiles; beverages include sugar-sweetened beverages, artificially sweetened beverages, punch, milk, coffee/tea depending on the model), baseline Alternate Healthy Eating Index score, and change in Alternate Healthy Eating Index score
  3. cMultivariable model 1 + baseline BMI (<21, 21–22.9, 23–24.9, 25–26.9, 27–29.9, 30–34.9, 35–39.9, ≥40 kg/m2) and change in body weight (quintiles)
  4. dThe results across the three cohorts were pooled using an inverse variance-weighted random-effects meta-analysis