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Table 3 Completers analysis of anthropometrics, metabolic outcomes and medication in patients with type 2 diabetes randomised to the LFD or LCD who were compliant with energy restriction <6,694 kJ/day (1,600 kcal/day) for women or <7,531 kJ/day (1,800 kcal/day) for men according to diet records at the 24 month registration

From: In type 2 diabetes, randomisation to advice to follow a low-carbohydrate diet transiently improves glycaemic control compared with advice to follow a low-fat diet producing a similar weight loss

Variable Diet Time point (months) p valuec p valued
0 6 12 24
Value p valuea Value p valueb Value p valueb Value p valueb
Weight (kg) LFD 90.6 ± 19 0.66 86.7 ± 19 <0.001 88.0 ± 19 <0.001 87.5 ± 19 0.008 <0.001 0.75
LCD 88.0 ± 16 83.4 ± 15 <0.001 85.6 ± 15 <0.001 84.4 ± 16 0.002 <0.001
BMI (kg/m2) LFD 31.6 ± 5 0.71 30.2 ± 5 <0.001 30.7 ± 5 <0.001 30.5 ± 5 0.005 <0.001 0.74
LCD 31.0 ± 4.5 29.4 ± 4.1 <0.001 30.0 ± 4.5 0.001 29.8 ± 4.5 0.002 <0.001
Waist (cm) LFD 107 ± 13 0.31 102 ± 15 <0.001 103 ± 16 <0.001 103 ± 16 0.004 <0.001 0.57
LCD 103 ± 12 100 ± 10 0.004 100 ± 10 0.072 100 ± 12 0.003 0.023
Sagittal abdominal diameter (cm) LFD 26 ± 5 0.97 25 ± 3 0.58 26 ± 3 0.68 26 ± 4 0.49 0.46 0.40
LCD 26 ± 4 25 ± 3 0.009 24 ± 3 0.003 24 ± 3 0.016 0.002
HbA1c (%) LFD 7.4 ± 2.8 0.83 7.3 ± 3.1 0.23 7.2 ± 2.9 0.021 7.5 ± 3.1 0.69 0.19 0.73
LCD 7.5 ± 2.8 7.0 ± 2.9 0.016 7.2 ± 3.1 0.062 7.5 ± 2.9 0.94 0.026
HbA1c (mmol/mol) LFD 57.9 ± 7.6 0.83 55.9 ± 9.9 0.23 55.5 ± 8.0 0.021 58.5 ± 10.4 0.69 0.19 0.73
LCD 58.4 ± 7.5 52.8 ± 8.3 0.016 54.8 ± 10.1 0.062 58.3 ± 8.7 0.94 0.026
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) LFD 134 ± 11 0.73 129 ± 13 0.078 127 ± 12 0.022 123 ± 10 0.005 0.007 0.73
LCD 133 ± 13 125 ± 16 0.053 127 ± 13 0.085 126 ± 14 0.195 0.13
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) LFD 74 ± 10 0.91 74 ± 8 0.84 68 ± 9 0.035 70 ± 8 0.032 0.012 0.80
LCD 74 ± 11 71 ± 8 0.17 71 ± 11 0.16 71 ± 8 0.11 0.22
Total cholesterol (mmol/l) LFD 4.0 ± 0.7 0.078 4.1 ± 0.9 0.67 4.0 ± 0.7 0.66 3.9 ± 0.8 0.57 0.73 0.11
LCD 4.5 ± 1.0 4.4 ± 1.3 0.65 4.4 ± 0.9 0.34 4.4 ± 1.0 0.67 0.90
LDL-cholesterol (mmol/l) LFD 2.2 ± 0.4 0.043 2.2 ± 0.7 0.84 2.2 ± 0.6 0.91 2.0 ± 0.7 0.16 0.43 0.13
LCD 2.7 ± 0.9 2.5 ± 0.9 0.37 2.5 ± 0.7 0.10 2.4 ± 0.8 0.066 0.34
HDL-cholesterol (mmol/l) LFD 1.14 ± 0.32 0.94 1.18 ± 0.32 0.28 1.21 ± 0.26 0.029 1.26 ± 0.34 0.050 0.080 0.67
LCD 1.15 ± 0.36 1.26 ± 0.48 0.034 1.23 ± 0.38 0.017 1.37 ± 0.46 <0.001 <0.001
Triacylglycerols (mmol/l) LFD 1.5 ± 0.7 0.88 1.4 ± 0.7 0.67 1.4 ± 0.7 0.17 1.6 ± 1.0 0.52 0.49 0.91
LCD 1.4 ± 0.6 1.4 ± 1.1 0.97 1.4 ± 0.5 0.84 1.5 ± 0.8 0.56 0.96
Total insulin dose (E) LFD 32 ± 41 0.73 30 ± 37 0.34 31 ± 38 0.73 30 ± 40 0.68 0.92 0.38
LCD 26 ± 54 14 ± 28 0.13 16 ± 33 0.16 20 ± 37 0.34 0.12
Metformin (mg) LFD 1,353 ± 981 0.81 1,176 ± 865 0.27 1,324 ± 847 0.79 1,265 ± 903 0.65 0.58 0.90
LCD 1,278 ± 844 1,444 ± 784 0.055 1,306 ± 860 0.85 1,222 ± 826 0.71 0.37
Glibenclamide (mg) LFD 0.7 ± 2.6 0.45 0.5 ± 1.7 0.33 0.6 ± 1.7 0.67 0.6 ± 1.7 0.67 0.69 1.0
LCD 1.5 ± 3.1 0.5 ± 1.2 0.056 0.3 ± 0.9 0.083 0.2 ± 0.8 0.099 0.039
Simvastatin (mg) LFD 21 ± 17 0.64 21 ± 17 e 25 ± 17 0.19 25 ± 17 0.19 0.14 0.95
LCD 18 ± 19 23 ± 19 0.16 26 ± 23 0.049 26 ± 23 0.049 0.025
Atorvastatin (mg) LFD 1 ± 2 0.21 1 ± 5 0.33 1 ± 5 0.33 1 ± 5 0.33 0.40 0.30
LCD 3 ± 7 3 ± 8 0.33 3 ± 8 0.33 3 ± 8 0.33 0.40
  1. LFD, n = 17; LCD, n = 18
  2. aBetween groups at baseline
  3. bFor change compared with baseline
  4. cFor change over all time points
  5. dFor change over all time points between groups
  6. eAs there were no changes in simvastatin doses, the t test is not applicable