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Table 1 Anthropometrics, metabolic outcomes and medication at 0, 6, 12 and 24 months after the initiation in patients with type 2 diabetes randomised to the LFD (n = 31) or LCD (n = 30)

From: In type 2 diabetes, randomisation to advice to follow a low-carbohydrate diet transiently improves glycaemic control compared with advice to follow a low-fat diet producing a similar weight loss

Variable Diet Time point (months) p valuec p valued
0 6 12 24
Value p valuea Value p valueb Value p valueb Value p valueb
Weight (kg) LFD 98.8 ± 21 0.15 94.2 ± 21 <0.001 94.9 ± 21 <0.001 95.9 ± 21 0.002 <0.001 0.33
LCD 91.4 ± 19 87.5 ± 19 <0.001 89.5 ± 19 <0.001 89.4 ± 22 0.020 <0.001
BMI (kg/m2) LFD 33.8 ± 5.7 0.11 32.3 ± 5.5 <0.001 32.6 ± 5.3 <0.001 32.8 ± 5.5 0.002 <0.001 0.20
LCD 31.6 ± 5.0 30.1 ± 5.1 <0.001 30.7 ± 5.3 <0.001 30.8 ± 5.8 0.011 <0.001
Waist (cm) LFD 110 ± 13 0.29 106 ± 15 <0.001 106 ± 14 <0.001 108 ± 16 0.035 <0.001 0.42
LCD 106 ± 15 102 ± 14 <0.001 104 ± 15 0.021 104 ± 16 0.015 0.002
Sagittal abdominal diameter (cm) LFD 27 ± 5 0.37 27 ± 4 0.097 27 ± 4 0.13 28 ± 4 0.62 0.088 0.068
LCD 26 ± 4 25 ± 4 0.006 25 ± 4 0.006 25 ± 4 0.014 0.002
HbA1c (%) LFD 7.2 ± 2.9 0.23 7.2 ± 3.0 0.56 7.3 ± 3.2 0.66 7.4 ± 3.1 0.29 0.40 0.76
LCD 7.5 ± 3.1 7.1 ± 3.1 0.004 7.3 ± 3.3 0.12 7.5 ± 3.1 0.98 0.005
HbA1c (mmol/mol) LFD 55.6 ± 8.0 0.23 54.7 ± 9.7 0.56 56.4 ± 11.4 0.66 57.6 ± 10.8 0.29 0.40 0.76
LCD 58.5 ± 10.2 53.7 ± 10.3 0.004 56.2 ± 12.4 0.12 58.4 ± 10.6 0.98 0.005
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) LFD 136 ± 13 0.73 128 ± 12 <0.001 126 ± 12 <0.001 125 ± 13 <0.001 <0.001 0.74
LCD 135 ± 15 126 ± 17 0.004 127 ± 13 0.003 126 ± 14 0.012 0.003
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) LFD 77 ± 9 0.67 74 ± 8 0.049 69 ± 9 <0.001 71 ± 11 0.001 <0.001 0.75
LCD 76 ± 11 72 ± 8 0.019 70 ± 10 0.002 71 ± 8 0.004 0.002
Total cholesterol (mmol/l) LFD 4.3 ± 1.0 0.40 4.2 ± 1.1 0.91 4.3 ± 1.1 0.96 4.0 ± 0.9 0.11 0.23 0.33
LCD 4.5 ± 1.0 4.4 ± 1.1 0.60 4.3 ± 0.9 0.17 4.4 ± 0.9 0.32 0.63
LDL-cholesterol (mmol/l) LFD 2.4 ± 0.7 0.24 2.3 ± 0.8 0.69 2.3 ± 0.8 0.48 2.1 ± 0.7 0.017 0.050 0.16
LCD 2.7 ± 0.9 2.5 ± 0.7 0.37 2.5 ± 0.8 0.12 2.4 ± 0.7 0.020 0.13
HDL-cholesterol (mmol/l) LFD 1.09 ± 0.29 0.57 1.10 ± 0.30 0.36 1.17 ± 0.24 0.004 1.20 ± 0.32 0.002 0.001 0.15
LCD 1.13 ± 0.33 1.25 ± 0.47 0.018 1.24 ± 0.38 0.024 1.36 ± 0.44 <0.001 <0.001
Triacylglycerols (mmol/l) LFD 1.8 ± 0.8 0.89 1.8 ± 1.3 0.79 1.7 ± 0.9 0.88 1.7 ± 0.9 0.81 0.98 0.35
LCD 1.7 ± 1.4 1.5 ± 1.2 0.39 1.4 ± 0.8 0.20 1.5 ± 0.8 0.22 0.68
Total insulin dose (E) LFD 39 ± 51 0.86 38 ± 48 0.12 38 ± 48 0.29 36 ± 44 0.50 0.81 0.83
LCD 42 ± 65 30 ± 47e 0.020 33 ± 54 0.041 35 ± 56 0.14 0.007
Metformin (mg) LFD 1,435 ± 946 0.80 1,274 ± 884 0.096 1,371 ± 875 0.40 1,306 ± 901 0.28 0.23 0.93
LCD 1,375 ± 950 1,442 ± 872e 0.29 1,358 ± 915 0.86 1,292 ± 911 0.38 0.39
Glibenclamide (mg) LFD 0.4 ± 1.9 0.26 0.3 ± 1.3 0.33 0.3 ± 1.3 0.66 0.3 ± 1.3 0.66 0.69 0.56
LCD 1.1 ± 2.6 0.5 ± 1.3 0.057 0.5 ± 2.0 0.24 0.1 ± 0.7 0.055 0.082
Simvastatin (mg) LFD 19 ± 17 1.00 19 ± 17 -f 24 ± 17 0.032 24 ± 17 0.032 0.003 0.54
LCD 19 ± 18 23 ± 19 0.096 28 ± 20 0.004 27 ± 21 0.008 0.001
Atorvastatin (mg) LFD 2 ± 5 0.97 2 ± 6 0.33 3 ± 9 0.18 3 ± 9 0.18 0.24 0.88
LCD 2 ± 5 2 ± 6 0.33 2 ± 6 0.33 2 ± 6 0.33 0.40
  1. aBetween groups at baseline
  2. bFor change compared with baseline
  3. cFor change over all time points
  4. dFor change over all time points between groups
  5. eDenotes statistically significant difference of change compared with baseline between the groups
  6. fAs there were no changes in simvastatin dose, the t test is not applicable