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Table 3 Crude incidence rates and adjusted HRs for cardiovascular and cancer-related mortality according to category of baseline glycated haemoglobin

From: No evidence of an increased mortality risk associated with low levels of glycated haemoglobin in a non-diabetic UK population

  Glycated haemoglobin (%) p value for trend
<5.0 5.0 to <5.5a 5.5 to <6.0 6.0 to <6.5 ≥6.5
Number of individuals 3,742 6,515 5,236 1,355 348  
Cardiovascular death (n) 68 157 208 88 31  
 Rate (/1,000 py) 1.6 (1.2–2.0) 2.2 (1.9–2.5) 3.6 (3.2–4.1) 6.0 (4.8–7.3) 8.5 (6.0–12.0)  
 HR (95% CI), age- and sex-adjusted 1.08 (0.85–1.37) 1.00 (0.85–1.17) 1.30 (1.13–1.48) 1.71 (1.38–2.12) 2.17 (1.51–3.11) <0.0001
 HR (95% CI), multivariate adjustedb 1.04 (0.81–1.33) 1.00 (0.85–1.17) 1.21 (1.05–1.38) 1.39 (1.11–1.74) 1.61 (1.09–2.36) 0.004
Cancer-related death (n) 131 310 332 122 34  
 Rate (/1,000 py) 3.0 (2.5–3.6) 4.3 (3.8–4.8) 5.8 (5.2–6.4) 8.3 (6.9–9.9) 9.3 (6.6–13.0)  
 HR (95% CI), age- and sex-adjusted 0.92 (0.78–1.10) 1.00 (0.89–1.12) 1.13 (1.01–1.25) 1.39 (1.17–1.66) 1.45 (1.04–2.04) <0.0001
 HR (95% CI), multivariate adjustedb 0.91 (0.77–1.09) 1.00 (0.89–1.12) 1.14 (1.02–1.27) 1.33 (1.11–1.60) 1.36 (0.96–1.91) 0.001
  1. aReference category
  2. bAdjusted for age, sex, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, smoking status, waist-to-hip-ratio, alcohol consumption and physical activity; numbers of deaths/total were 1,893/16,767 because of missing values of covariates
  3. py, person-years