QTL analysis of cooking time and quality traits in dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

Abstract

Key message

Three robust QTL for dry bean cooking time shortened cooking time 11–26 min and co-localized with QTL for increased cooked seed protein concentration.

Abstract

Cooking time is a major factor associated with consumer preference of dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). The genetic control of cooking time was investigated with a quantitative trait loci (QTL) study on a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population developed from TZ-27 (slow cooking) and TZ-37 (fast cooking). The RIL population of 146 lines was grown on research farms over 2 years in Arusha and Morogoro, Tanzania. Arusha is an important mid-altitude bean-growing region, with moderate temperatures and reliable rainfall, whereas the low altitude and high temperatures in Morogoro make it unfavorable for bean production. The population exhibited large variation for cooking time with a range of 22–98 min. On average, beans grown in Arusha cooked 15 min faster than those grown in Morogoro. A linkage map developed with 1951 SNP markers was used for QTL analysis. Ten QTL were identified for cooking time, three of which were found in multiple environments. RILs with all three QTL (CT3.1, CT6.1, and CT11.2) cooked on average 11 min faster in Arusha and 26 min faster in Morogoro than RILs with none. Seed attributes were related to cooking time such that seeds with greater seed mass and less seed coat percentage cooked faster. Cooked seed protein concentration ranged from 17.8 to 30.8% across the years and locations. All three of the most robust cooking time QTL co-localized with QTL for protein concentration, and TZ-37 always contributed faster cooking time and increased protein concentration.

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Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank the US Borlaug Global Food Security Program for providing funding that allowed research to be conducted in Tanzania. The staff of Sokoine University of Agriculture and Selian Agricultural Research Institute were invaluable in the assistance they provided for this project.

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MB collected and analyzed data and wrote the manuscript. SNM designed field trials in Tanzania. PI analyzed data and contributed to writing the manuscript. HJ conducted the QTL validation. SS conducted DNA extraction and GBS library preparation. KC designed the research, analyzed data, and contributed to writing and editing the manuscript.

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Correspondence to K. Cichy.

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Berry, M., Izquierdo, P., Jeffery, H. et al. QTL analysis of cooking time and quality traits in dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Theor Appl Genet 133, 2291–2305 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00122-020-03598-w

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