Theoretical and Applied Genetics

, Volume 131, Issue 7, pp 1541–1552 | Cite as

Field evaluation of three sources of genetic resistance to sudden death syndrome of soybean

  • Lillian F. Brzostowski
  • Timothy I. Pruski
  • Glen L. Hartman
  • Jason P. Bond
  • Dechun Wang
  • Silvia R. Cianzio
  • Brian W. Diers
Original Article


Key message

Despite numerous challenges, field testing of three sources of genetic resistance to sudden death syndrome of soybean provides information to more effectively improve resistance to this disease in cultivars.


Sudden death syndrome (SDS) of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] is a disease that causes yield loss in soybean growing regions across the USA and worldwide. While several quantitative trait loci (QTL) for SDS resistance have been mapped, studies to further evaluate these QTL are limited. The objective of our research was to map SDS resistance QTL and to test the effect of mapped resistance QTL on foliar symptoms when incorporated into elite soybean backgrounds. We mapped a QTL from Ripley to chromosome 10 (CHR10) and a QTL from PI507531 to chromosomes 1 and 18 (CHR1 and 18). Six populations were then developed to test the following QTL: cqSDS-001, with resistance originating from PI567374, CHR10, CHR1, and CHR18. The populations which segregated for resistant and susceptible QTL alleles were field tested in multiple environments and evaluated for SDS foliar symptoms. While foliar disease development was variable across environments and populations, a significant effect of each QTL on disease was detected within at least one environment. This includes the detection of cqSDS-001 in three genetic backgrounds. The QTL allele from the resistant parents was associated with greater resistance than the susceptible alleles for all QTL and backgrounds with the exception of the allele for CHR18, where the opposite occurred. This study highlights the importance and difficulties of evaluating QTL and the need for multi-year SDS field testing. The information presented in this study can aid breeders in making decisions to improve resistance to SDS.



This research was supported by funding from the North Central Soybean Research Program (NCSRP).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

On behalf of all the authors, the corresponding author states there is no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

122_2018_3096_MOESM1_ESM.docx (18 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 18 kb)


  1. Abney TS, Crochet WD (2006) Uniform soybean tests northern states, 2006. USDA-ARS, West LafayetteGoogle Scholar
  2. Anderson TR, Tenuta AU (1998) First report of Fusarium solani f. sp. Glycines causing sudden death syndrome of soybean in Canada. Plant Dis 82:448CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aoki T, O’Donnell K, Homma Y, Lattanzi AR (2003) Sudden-death syndrome of soybean is caused by two morphologically and phylogenetically distinct species within the Fusarium solani species complex—F. virguliforme in North America and F. tucumaniae in South America. Mycologia 95:660–684PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Aoki T, O’Donnell K, Scandiani MM (2005) Sudden death syndrome of soybean in South America is caused by four species of Fusarium: Fusarium brasiliense sp. nov., F. cuneirostrum sp. nov., F. tucumaniae, and F. virguliforme. Mycoscience 46:162–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Aoki T, Scandiani MM, O’Donnell K (2012) Phenotypic, molecular phylogenetic, and pathogenetic characterization of Fusarium crassistipitatum sp. nov., a novel soybean sudden death syndrome pathogen from Argentina and Brazil. Mycoscience 53:167–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bao Y, Kurle JE, Anderson G, Young ND (2015) Association mapping and genomic prediction for resistance to sudden death syndrome in early maturing soybean germplasm. Mol Breed 35:1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Beavis WD, Smith OS, Grant D, Fincher R (1994) Identification of quantitative trait loci using a small sample of topcrossed and F4 progeny from maize. Crop Sci 34:882–896CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bell-Johnson B, Garvey G, Johnson J, Lightfoot D, Meksem K (1998) Biotechnology approaches to improving resistance to SCN and SDS: methods for high throughput marker assisted selection. Soybean Genet Newsl 25:115–117Google Scholar
  9. Cary TR, Diers BW (2004) Northern regional soybean cyst nematode tests. University of Illinois, UrbanaGoogle Scholar
  10. Cooper RL, Martin RJ, McBain BA, Fioritto RJ, St. Martin SK, Calip-DuBois A, Schmitthenner AF (1990) Registration of ‘Ripley’ soybean. Crop Sci 30:963CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cregan P, Quigley C (1997) Simple sequence repeat DNA marker analysis. p. In: Caetano-Anolles G, Gresshoff PM (eds) DNA markers: protocols, applications, and overviews. J Wiley and Sons, New York, pp 173–185Google Scholar
  12. Cregan P, Jarvik T, Bush A, Shoemaker R, Lark K, Kahler A, Kaya N, VanToai TT, Lohnes DG, Chung J, Specht JE (1999) An integrated genetic linkage map of the soybean genome. Crop Sci 39:1464–1490CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. de Farias Neto AL, Hartman GL, Pedersen WL, Li S, Bollero GA, Diers BW (2006) Irrigation and inoculation treatments that increase the severity of soybean sudden death syndrome in the field. Crop Sci 46:2547–2554CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. de Farias Neto AL, Hashmi R, Schmidt M, Carlson SR, Hartman GL, Li S, Diers BW (2007) Mapping and confirmation of a new sudden death syndrome resistance QTL on linkage group D2 from the soybean genotypes PI 567374 and ‘Ripley’. Mol Breed 20:53–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Diers BW, Cary TR, Thomas DJ, Nickell CD (2006) Registration of ‘LD00-3309’ soybean. Crop Sci 46:1384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Fan JB, Oliphant A, Shen R, Kermani BG, Garcia F, Gunderson KL, Hansen M, Steemers F, Butler SL, Deloukas P, Galver L, Hunt S, McBride C, Bibikova M, Rubano T, Chen J, Wickam E, Doucet D, Chang W, Campbell D, Zhang B, Kruglyak S, Bentley D, Haas J, Rigault P, Zhou L, Stuelpnagel J, Chee MS (2003) Highly parallel SNP genotyping. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Bio 68:69–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Fasoula VA, Harris DK, Boerma HR (2004) Validation and designation of quantitative trait loci for seed protein, seed oil, and seed weight from two soybean populations. Crop Sci 44:1218–1225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Fehr W, Caviness C, Burmood D, Pennington J (1971) Stage of development descriptions for soybeans, Glycine Max (L.) Merrill. Crop Sci 11:929–931CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hartman GL, Chang H, Leandro LF (2015a) Research advances and management of soybean sudden death syndrome. Crop Prot 73:60–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hartman GL, Leandro LF, Rupe JC (2015b) Sudden death syndrome. In: Hartman GL, Rupe JC, Sikora EJ, Domier LL, Davis JA, Steffy KL (eds) Compendium of soybean diseases, 5th edn. APS Press, St. PaulGoogle Scholar
  21. Holloway JL, Knapp SJ (1993) GMendel 3.0 Users Guide. Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, Oregon State UniversityGoogle Scholar
  22. Hyten DL, Song Q, Choi IY, Yoon M, Specht JE, Matukumalli LK, Nelson RL, Carter TE, Shoemaker RC, Young ND, Cregan PB (2010) A high density integrated genetic linkage map of soybean and the development of a 1536 universal soy linkage panel for quantitative trait locus mapping. Crop Sci 50:960–968CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Iqbal MJ, Meksem K, Njiti VN, Kassem MA, Lightfoot DA (2001) Microsatellite markers identify three additional quantitative trait loci for resistance to soybean sudden-death syndrome (SDS) in Essex × Forrest RILs. Theor Appl Genet 102:187–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kandel YR, Bradley CA, Wise KA, Chilvers MI, Tenuta AU, Davis VM, Esker PF, Smith DL, Licht MA, Mueller DS (2015) Effect of glyphosate application on sudden death syndrome of glyphosate-resistant soybean under field conditions. Plant Dis 99:347–354CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kao C, Zeng Z (1997) General formulas for obtaining the MLEs and the asymptotic variance–covariance matrix in mapping quantitative trait loci when using the EM algorithm. Biometrics 53:653–665CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Kassem MA, Ramos L, Leandro L, Mbofung G, Hyten D, Kantartzi SK, Grier RL, Njiti VN, Cianzio S, Meksem K (2012) The ‘PI 438489B’ by ‘Hamilton’ SNP-based genetic linkage map of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] identified quantitative trait loci that underlie seedling SDS resistance. J Plant Genome Sci 1:18–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kazi S, Shultz J, Afzal J, Johnson J, Njiti V, Lightfoot DA (2008) Separate loci underlie resistance to root infection and leaf scorch during soybean sudden death syndrome. Theor Appl Genet 116:967–977CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Keim P, Olson T, Shoemaker R (1988) A rapid protocol for isolating soybean DNA. Soybean Genet Newsl 15:150–152Google Scholar
  29. Kim E (2007) Evaluation of soybean sudden death syndrome resistance and fungal growth on fungicide-amended medium. MS thesis, University of IllinoisGoogle Scholar
  30. Koenning SR, Wrather JA (2010) Suppression of soybean yield potential in the continental United States from plant diseases from 2006 to 2009. Plant Health Prog. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Littell RC, Stroup WW, Milliken GA, Wolfinger RD, Schabenberger O (2006) SAS for mixed models. SAS Institute, CaryGoogle Scholar
  32. Luckew A, Leandro L, Bhattacharyya M, Nordman D, Lightfoot D, Cianzio S (2013) Usefulness of 10 genomic regions in soybean associated with sudden death syndrome resistance. Theor Appl Genet 126:2391–2403CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Nakajima T, Mitsueda T, Charchar MJD (1993) Occurrence of soybean sudden-death syndrome caused by Fusarium solani in Brazil. Abstract. In: 7th Int Fusarium Workshop, Pennsylvania State University, pp 79Google Scholar
  34. Nickell CD, Thomas DJ, Cary TR, Kyle DE, Hegstad JM (1998) Registration of ‘Omaha’ soybean. Crop Sci 38:547Google Scholar
  35. Njiti V, Shenaut M, Suttner R, Schmidt M, Gibson P (1996) Soybean response to sudden death syndrome: inheritance influenced by cyst nematode resistance in Pyramid × Douglas progenies. Crop Sci 36:1165–1170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Njiti VN, Suttner RJ, Gray LE, Gibson PT, Lightfoot DA (1997) Rate-reducing resistance to Fusarium solani f. sp. phaseoli underlies field resistance to soybean sudden death syndrome. Crop Sci 37:132–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Njiti V, Doubler T, Suttner RJ, Gray L, Gibson P, Lightfoot D (1998a) Resistance to soybean sudden death syndrome and root colonization by Fusarium solani f. sp. glycines in near-isogenic lines. Crop Sci 38:472–477CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Njiti VN, Shenaut MA, Suttner RJ, Schmidt ME, Gibson PT (1998b) Relationship between soybean sudden death syndrome disease measures and yield components in F6-derived lines. Crop Sci 38:673–678CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Njiti V, Meksem K, Iqbal M, Johnson J, Kassem M, Zobrist K, Kilo VY, Lightfoot D (2002) Common loci underlie field resistance to soybean sudden death syndrome in Forrest, Pyramid, Essex, and Douglas. Theor Appl Genet 104:294–300CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Ploper D (1993) Sudden death syndrome: new soybean disease in northeastern Argentina. Agroind Adv 13:5–9Google Scholar
  41. Prabhu RR, Njiti VN, Bell-Johnson B, Johnson JE, Schmidt ME, Klein JH, Lightfoot DA (1999) Selecting soybean cultivars for dual resistance to soybean cyst nematode and sudden death syndrome using two DNA markers. Crop Sci 39:982–987CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Roy K, Hershman D, Rupe J, Abney T (1997) Sudden death syndrome of soybean. Plant Dis 81:1100–1111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Rupe JC, Correll JC, Guerber JC, Becton CM, Gbur EE, Cummings MS, Yount PA (2001) Differentiation of the sudden death syndrome pathogen of soybean, Fusarium solani f. sp. glycines, from other isolates of F. solani based on cultural morphology, pathogenicity, and mitochondrial DNA restriction fragment length polymorphisms. Can J Bot 79:829–835Google Scholar
  44. SAS Institute (2016) The SAS system for Microsoft Windows, Release 9.4. SAS Institute, CaryGoogle Scholar
  45. Scherm H, Yang X (1996) Development of sudden death syndrome of soybean in relation to soil temperature and soil water matric potential. Phytopathology 86:642–649CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Scherm H, Yang X, Lundeen P (1998) Soil variables associated with sudden death syndrome in soybean fields in Iowa. Plant Dis 82:1152–1157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Song Q, Marek L, Shoemaker R, Lark K, Concibido V, Delannay X, JSpecht JE, Cregan P (2004) A new integrated genetic linkage map of the soybean. Theor Appl Genet 109:122–128CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Song Q, Jia G, Zhu Y, Grant D, Nelson RT, Hwang E, Hyten DL, Cregan PB (2010) Abundance of SSR motifs and development of candidate polymorphic SSR markers (BARCSOYSSR_1. 0) in soybean. Crop Sci 50:1950–1960CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. SoyBase and the Soybean Breeder’s Toolbox (2017) Soybean breeder’s toolbox genetic map information. Accessed 30 Jan 2017
  50. Srour A, Afzal AJ, Blahut-Beatty L, Hemmati N, Simmonds DH, Li W, Liu M, Town C, Sharma H, Arelli P, Lightfoot DA (2012) The receptor like kinase at Rhg1-a/Rfs2 caused pleiotropic resistance to sudden death syndrome and soybean cyst nematode as a transgene by altering signaling responses. BMC Genom 13:368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Triwitayakorn K, Njiti V, Iqbal M, Yaegashi S, Town C, Lightfoot D (2005) Genomic analysis of a region encompassing QRfs1 and QRfs2: genes that underlie soybean resistance to sudden death syndrome. Genome 48:125–138CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Utz HF (2000) Introduction to Plabqtl. Institute of Plant Breeding, Seed Science and Population Genetics. University of Hohenheim, HohenheimGoogle Scholar
  53. Wang D, Shi J, Carlson S, Cregan P, Ward R, Diers B (2003) A low-cost, high-throughput polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis system for genotyping with microsatellite DNA markers. Crop Sci 43:1828–1832CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Weems JD, Haudenshield JS, Bond JP, Hartman GL, Ames KA, Bradley CA (2015) Effect of fungicide seed treatments on Fusarium virguliforme infection of soybean and development of sudden death syndrome. Can J Plant Pathol 37:435–447CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Wen Z, Tan R, Yuan J, Bales C, Du W, Zhang S, Chilvers M, Schmidt C, Song Q, Cregan P, Wang D (2014) Genome-wide association mapping of quantitative resistance to sudden death syndrome in soybean. BMC Genome 15:809CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Wilcox JR, Roach MT, Abney TS (1989) Registration of ‘Spencer’ soybean. Crop Sci 29:830–831CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Zhang J, Singh A, Mueller DS, Singh AK (2015) Genome-wide association and epistasis studies unravel the genetic architecture of sudden death syndrome resistance in soybean. Plant J 84:1124-11Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lillian F. Brzostowski
    • 1
  • Timothy I. Pruski
    • 2
  • Glen L. Hartman
    • 1
    • 3
  • Jason P. Bond
    • 4
  • Dechun Wang
    • 5
  • Silvia R. Cianzio
    • 6
  • Brian W. Diers
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Crop SciUniversity of IllinoisUrbanaUSA
  2. 2.Bayer CropScienceWhite HeathUSA
  3. 3.USDA–Agricultural Research ServiceUrbanaUSA
  4. 4.Department of Plant, Soil, and Ag. SystemsSouthern Illinois UniversityCarbondaleUSA
  5. 5.Department of Crop and Soil SciMichigan State UniversityEast LansingUSA
  6. 6.Department of AgronomyIowa State UniversityAmesUSA

Personalised recommendations