Theoretical and Applied Genetics

, Volume 131, Issue 6, pp 1379–1389 | Cite as

Mutations in CsPID encoding a Ser/Thr protein kinase are responsible for round leaf shape in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

  • Chaowen Zhang
  • Feifan Chen
  • Ziyao Zhao
  • Liangliang Hu
  • Hanqiang Liu
  • Zhihui Cheng
  • Yiqun Weng
  • Peng Chen
  • Yuhong Li
Original Article


Key message

Two round-leaf mutants, rl-1 and rl-2, were identified from EMS-induced mutagenesis. High throughput sequencing and map-based cloning suggested CsPID encoding a Ser/Thr protein kinase as the most possible candidate for rl-1. Rl-2 was allelic to Rl-1.


Leaf shape is an important plant architecture trait that is affected by plant hormones, especially auxin. In Arabidopsis, PINOID (PID), a regulator for the auxin polar transporter PIN (PIN-FORMED) affects leaf shape formation, but this function of PID in crop plants has not been well studied. From an EMS mutagenesis population, we identified two round-leaf (rl) mutants, C356 and C949. Segregation analysis suggested that both mutations were controlled by single recessive genes, rl-1 and rl-2, respectively. With map-based cloning, we show that CsPID as the candidate gene of rl-1; a non-synonymous SNP in the second exon of CsPID resulted in an amino acid substitution and the round leaf phenotype. As compared in the wild type plant, CsPID had significantly lower expression in the root, leaf and female flowers in C356, which may result in the less developed roots, round leaves and abnormal female flowers, respectively in the rl-1 mutant. Among the three copies of PID genes, CsPID, CsPID2 and CSPID2L (CsPID2-like) in the cucumber genome, CsPID was the only one with significantly differential expression in adult leaves between WT and C356 suggesting CsPID plays a main role in leaf shape formation. The rl-2 mutation in C949 was also cloned, which was due to another SNP in a nearby location of rl-1 in the same CsPID gene. The two round leaf mutants and the work presented herein provide a good foundation for understanding the molecular mechanisms of CsPID in cucumber leaf development.



This research was supported by a grant from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Project #31471891) to YL and the National Institute of Food and Agriculture, U.S. Department of Agriculture, under award number 2015-51181-24285 to YW.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author declares that there is no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

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Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 31 kb)
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Supplementary material 3 (PPTX 164 kb)
122_2018_3084_MOESM4_ESM.xls (66 kb)
Supplementary material 4 (XLS 66 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chaowen Zhang
    • 1
  • Feifan Chen
    • 1
  • Ziyao Zhao
    • 1
  • Liangliang Hu
    • 1
  • Hanqiang Liu
    • 1
  • Zhihui Cheng
    • 1
  • Yiqun Weng
    • 2
    • 3
  • Peng Chen
    • 4
  • Yuhong Li
    • 1
  1. 1.College of HorticultureNorthwest A&F UniversityYanglingChina
  2. 2.Horticulture DepartmentUniversity of WisconsinMadisonUSA
  3. 3.Vegetable Crops Research UnitUSDA-ARSMadisonUSA
  4. 4.College of Life ScienceNorthwest A&F UniversityYanglingChina

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