General and specific combining abilities of maize hybrids between 288 inbred lines and three tester lines were highly related to population structure and genetic distance inferred from SNP data.
Many studies have attempted to provide reliable and quick methods to identify promising parental lines and combinations in hybrid breeding programs. Since the 1950s, maize germplasm has been organized into heterotic groups to facilitate the exploitation of heterosis. Molecular markers have proven efficient tools to address the organization of genetic diversity and the relationship between lines or populations. The aim of the present work was to investigate to what extent marker-based evaluations of population structure and genetic distance may account for general (GCA) and specific (SCA) combining ability components in a population composed of 800 inter and intra-heterotic group hybrids obtained by crossing 288 inbred lines and three testers. Our results illustrate a strong effect of groups identified by population structure analysis on both GCA and SCA components. Including genetic distance between parental lines of hybrids in the model leads to a significant decrease of SCA variance component and an increase in GCA variance component for all the traits. The latter suggests that this approach can be efficient to better estimate the potential combining ability of inbred lines when crossed with unrelated lines, and limits the consequences of tester choice. Significant residual GCA and SCA variance components of models taking into account structure and/or genetic distance highlight the variation available for breeding programs within structure groups.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Ajmone Marsan P, Castiglioni P, Fusari F, Kuiper M, Motto M (1998) Genetic diversity and its relationship to hybrid performance in maize as revealed by RFLP and AFLP markers. Theor Appl Genet 96:219–227
Bernardo R (1992) Relationship between single-cross performance and molecular marker heterozygosity. Theor Appl Genet 83:628–634
Bouchet S, Servin B, Bertin P, Madur D, Combes V, Dumas F, Brunel D, Laborde J, Charcosset A, Nicolas S (2013) Adaptation of maize to temperate climates: mid-density genome-wide association genetics and diversity patterns reveal key genomic regions, with a major contribution of the Vgt2 (ZCN8) locus. PLoS One 8:e71377
Butler D, Cullis BR, Gilmour AR, Gogel BJ (2009) ASReml-R reference manual. The State of Queensland, Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries
Camus-Kulandaivelu L, Veyrieras JB, Madur D, Combes V, Fourmann M, Barraud S, Dubreuil P, Gouesnard B, Manicacci D, Charcosset A (2006) Maize adaptation to temperate climate: relationship between population structure and polymorphism in the Dwarf8 gene. Genetics 172:2449–2463
Casa A, Mitchell S, Smith O, Register Iii J, Wessler S, Kresovich S (2002) Evaluation of Hbr (MITE) markers for assessment of genetic relationships among maize (Zea mays L.) inbred lines. Theor Appl Genet 104:104–110
Charcosset A, Essioux L (1994) The effect of population structure on the relationship between heterosis and heterozygosity at marker loci. Theor Appl Genet 89:336–343
Charcosset A, Lefort-Buson M, Gallais A (1991) Relationship between heterosis and heterozygosity at marker loci: a theoretical computation. Theor Appl Genet 81:571–575
Compton W, Lonnquist C (1965) Genetic variability in two open-pollinated varieties of corn (Zea mays L.) and their F1 progenies1. Crop Sci 5:505–508
Darwin C (1876) The effects of cross and self fertilization in the vegetable kingdom. John Murray, London
Dhillon B, Gurrath P, Zimmer E, Wermke M, Pollmer W, Klein D (1990) Analysis of diallel crosses of maize for variation and covariation in agronomic traits at silage and grain harvests. Maydica 35:297–302
Dubreuil P, Charcosset A (1999) Relationships among maize inbred lines and populations from European and North-American origins as estimated using RFLP markers. Theor Appl Genet 99:473–480
Dubreuil P, Dufour P, Krejci E, Causse M, De Vienne D, Gallais A, Charcosset A (1996) Organization of RFLP diversity among inbred lines of maize representing the most significant heterotic groups. Crop Sci 36:790–799
Dubreuil P, Warburton M, Chastanet M, Hoisington D, Charcosset A (2006) More on the introduction of temperate maize into Europe: large-scale bulk SSR genotyping and new historical elements. Maydica 51:281–291
Ducrocq S, Madur D, Veyrieras JB, Camus-Kulandaivelu L, Kloiber-Maitz M, Presterl T, Ouzunova M, Manicacci D, Charcosset A (2008) Key Impact of Vgt1 on flowering time adaptation in maize: evidence from association mapping and ecogeographical information. Genetics 178:2433–2437
Dudley J, Saghai Maroof M, Rufener G (1991) Molecular markers and grouping of parents in maize breeding programs. Crop Sci 31:718–723
Falque M, Décousset L, Dervins D, Jacob AM, Joets J, Martinant JP, Raffoux X, Ribiere N, Ridel C, Samson D (2005) Linkage mapping of 1454 new maize candidate gene loci. Genetics 170:1957–1966
Fischer S, Möhring J, Schön CC, Piepho HP, Klein D, Schipprack W, Utz HF, Melchinger AE, Reif JC (2008) Trends in genetic variance components during 30 years of hybrid maize breeding at the University of Hohenheim. Plant Breed 127:446–451
Frascaroli E, Canè MA, Pè ME, Pea G, Morgante M, Landi P (2009) QTL detection in maize testcross progenies as affected by related and unrelated testers. Theor Appl Genet 118:993–1004
Gallais A (1990) Théorie de la sélection en amélioration des plantes. Masson edn, Paris
Gallais A (2009) Hétérosis et variétés hybrides en amélioration des plantes. Collection Synthèses. Editions Quae, Versailles
Godshalk E, Lee M, Lamkey K (1990) Relationship of restriction fragment length polymorphisms to single-cross hybrid performance of maize. Theor Appl Genet 80:273–280
Grieder C, Dhillon BS, Schipprack W, Melchinger AE (2012) Breeding maize as biogas substrate in Central Europe: I. Quantitative-genetic parameters for testcross performance. Theor Appl Genet 124:971–980
Jenkins MT, Brunson AM (1932) Methods of testing inbred lines of maize in crossbred combinations. J Am Soc Agron 24:523–530
Lee M, Godshalk E, Lamkey KR, Woodman W (1989) Association of restriction fragment length polymorphisms among maize inbreds with agronomic performance of their crosses. Crop Sci 29:1067–1071
Lee M, Sharopova N, Beavis WD, Grant D, Katt M, Blair D, Hallauer A (2002) Expanding the genetic map of maize with the intermated B73 by Mo17 (IBM) population. Plant Mol Biol 48:453–461
Livini C, Ajmone-Marsan P, Melchinger A, Messmer M, Motto M (1992) Genetic diversity of maize inbred lines within and among heterotic groups revealed by RFLPs. Theor Appl Genet 84:17–25
Manicacci D, Camus-Kulandaivelu L, Fourmann M, Arar C, Barrault S, Rousselet A, Feminias N, Consoli L, Francès L, Méchin V (2009) Epistatic interactions between Opaque2 transcriptional activator and its target gene CyPPDK1 control kernel trait variation in maize. Plant Physiol 150:506–520
Melchinger AE (1999) Genetic diversity and heterosis. In: Coors JG, Pandey S (eds) The genetics and exploitation of heterosis in crops. American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America and Soil Science Society of America, Madison, pp 99–118
Melchinger AE, Lee M, Lamkey KR, Hallauer AR, Woodman WL (1990) Genetic diversity for restriction fragment length polymorphisms and heterosis for two diallel sets of maize inbreds. Theor Appl Genet 80:488–496
Melchinger A, Messmer M, Lee M, Woodman W, Lamkey K (1991) Diversity and relationships among US maize inbreds revealed by restriction fragment length polymorphisms. Crop Sci 31:669–678
Messmer M, Melchinger A, Lee M, Woodman W, Lee E, Lamkey K (1991) Genetic diversity among progenitors and elite lines from the Iowa Stiff Stalk Synthetic (BSSS) maize population: comparison of allozyme and RFLP data. Theor Appl Genet 83:97–107
Mezmouk S, Dubreuil P, Bosio M, Décousset L, Charcosset A, Praud S, Mangin B (2011) Effect of population structure corrections on the results of association mapping tests in complex maize diversity panels. Theor Appl Genet 122:1149–1160
Moll R, Salhuana W, Robinson H (1962) Heterosis and genetic diversity in varieties of maize. Crop Sci 2:197–198
Moll R, Lonnquist J, Fortuno JV, Johnson E (1965) The relationship of heterosis and genetic divergence in maize. Genetics 52:139–144
Pritchard JK, Stephens M, Donnelly P (2000) Inference of population structure using multilocus genotype data. Genetics 155:945–959
Reif JC, Gumpert F-M, Fischer S, Melchinger AE (2007) Impact of interpopulation divergence on additive and dominance variance in hybrid populations. Genetics 176:1931–1934
Rogers JS (1972) Measures of genetic similarity and genetic distance. Studies in genetics VII. The University of Texas publications, Austin, pp 145–153
Schrag TA, Melchinger AE, Sørensen AP, Frisch M (2006) Prediction of single-cross hybrid performance for grain yield and grain dry matter content in maize using AFLP markers associated with QTL. Theor Appl Genet 113:1037–1047
Schrag TA, Möhring J, Maurer HP, Dhillon BS, Melchinger AE, Piepho HP, Sørensen AP, Frisch M (2009) Molecular marker-based prediction of hybrid performance in maize using unbalanced data from multiple experiments with factorial crosses. Theor Appl Genet 118:741–751
Schrag TA, Möhring J, Melchinger AE, Kusterer B, Dhillon BS et al (2010) Prediction of hybrid performance in maize using molecular markers and joint analyses of hybrids and parental inbreds. Theor Appl Genet 120:451–461
Shull GH (1908) The composition of a field of maize. Am Breeders Assoc Rep 4:296–301
Shull GH (1914) Duplicate genes for capsule-form in Bursa pastoris. Zeitschrift ind Abst u Verebsgl 12:97–149
Smith OS (1986) Covariance between line per se and testcross performance. Crop Sci 26:540–543
Smith OS, Smith JSC, Bowen SL, Tenborg RA, Wall SJ (1990) Similarities among a group of elite maize inbreds as measured by pedigree, F1 grain yield, grain yield, heterosis, and RFLPs. Theor Appl Genet 80:833–840
Smith J, Duvick D, Smith O, Grunst A, Wall S (1999) Effect of hybrid breeding on genetic diversity in maize. In: Coors JG, Pandey S (eds) Genetics and exploitation of heterosis in crops. American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America and Soil Science Society of America, Madison, pp 119–126
Sprague GF, Tatum LA (1942) General vs. specific combining ability in single crosses of corn. J Am Soc Agron 34:923–932
Technow F, Riedelsheimer C, Schrag TA, Melchinger AE (2012) Genomic prediction of hybrid performance in maize with models incorporating dominance and population specific marker effects. Theor Appl Genet 125:1181–1194
Technow F, Schrag TA, Schipprack W, Bauer E, Simianer H et al (2014) Genome properties and prospects of genomic prediction of hybrid performance in a breeding program of maize. Genetics 197:1343–1355
Tenaillon MI, Charcosset A (2011) A European perspective on maize history. Comptes Rendus Biologies 334(3):221–228
Van Inghelandt D, Reif JC, Dhillon BS, Flament P, Melchinger AE (2011) Extent and genome-wide distribution of linkage disequilibrium in commercial maize germplasm. Theor Appl Genet 123:1–10
Vitezica ZG, Varona L, Elsen JM, Misztal I, Herring W, Legarra A (2016) Genomic BLUP including additive and dominant variation in purebreds and F1 crossbreds, with an application in pigs. Genet Sel Evol 48(1):1
Yu J, Pressoir G, Briggs WH, Bi IV, Yamasaki M, Doebley JF, McMullen MD, Gaut BS, Nielsen DM, Holland JB (2006) A unified mixed-model method for association mapping that accounts for multiple levels of relatedness. Nat Genet 38(2):203–208
We are grateful to the INRA Saint-Martin de Hinx seed stock center for providing genetic materials used in this study. We are grateful to Euralis, RAGT and Limagrain for providing proprietary materials and production of hybrid seeds. We are grateful to colleagues of the Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique experimental units (Le Moulon, Mons, Lusignan and Saint-Martin de Hinx) and Arvalis (Satolas) for conducting the phenotypic evaluation. We are grateful to Patrick Vincourt and Elisabetta Frascaroli for helpful comments and discussion. Amandine Larièpe was funded partially by ANRT and Biogemma. Alain Charcosset and Laurence Moreau finalized this study in the framework of the AMAIZING research project funded by the French ANR.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare no conflict of interest.
This experiment did not involve animals and respected ethical standards.
Communicated by M. Frisch.
Electronic supplementary material
Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.
About this article
Cite this article
Larièpe, A., Moreau, L., Laborde, J. et al. General and specific combining abilities in a maize (Zea mays L.) test-cross hybrid panel: relative importance of population structure and genetic divergence between parents. Theor Appl Genet 130, 403–417 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00122-016-2822-z
- Inbred Line
- Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
- General Combine Ability