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Advancements in breeding, genetics, and genomics for resistance to three nematode species in soybean

Abstract

Key message

Integration of genetic analysis, molecular biology, and genomic approaches drastically enhanced our understanding of genetic control of nematode resistance and provided effective breeding strategies in soybeans.

Abstract

Three nematode species, including soybean cyst (SCN, Heterodera glycine), root-knot (RKN, Meloidogyne incognita), and reniform (RN, Rotylenchulus reniformis), are the most destructive pests and have spread to soybean growing areas worldwide. Host plant resistance has played an important role in their control. This review focuses on genetic, genomic studies, and breeding efforts over the past two decades to identify and improve host resistance to these three nematode species. Advancements in genetics, genomics, and bioinformatics have improved our understanding of the molecular and genetic mechanisms of nematode resistance and enabled researchers to generate large-scale genomic resources and marker-trait associations. Whole-genome resequencing, genotyping-by-sequencing, genome-wide association studies, and haplotype analyses have been employed to map and dissect genomic locations for nematode resistance. Recently, two major SCN-resistant loci, Rhg1 and Rhg4, were cloned and other novel resistance quantitative trait loci (QTL) have been discovered. Based on these discoveries, gene-specific DNA markers have been developed for both Rhg1 and Rhg4 loci, which were useful for marker-assisted selection. With RKN resistance QTL being mapped, candidate genes responsible for RKN resistance were identified, leading to the development of functional single nucleotide polymorphism markers. So far, three resistances QTL have been genetically mapped for RN resistance. With nematode species overcoming the host plant resistance, continuous efforts in the identification and deployment of new resistance genes are required to support the development of soybean cultivars with multiple and durable resistance to these pests.

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Abbreviations

LG:

Linkage group

PI:

Plant introduction

SCN:

Soybean cyst nematode

RKN:

Root-knot nematode

RN:

Reniform nematode

SNP:

Single nucleotide polymorphism

QTL:

Quantitative trait loci

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Acknowledgements

The authors thank Mrs. Theresa Musket, University of Missouri, for reviewing the manuscript. The authors thank the United Soybean Board and the Missouri Soybean Merchandising Council for supporting soybean nematode-resistance research.

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Correspondence to Ki-Seung Kim or Henry T. Nguyen.

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Communicated by H. Bürstmayr and J. Vollmann.

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Kim, KS., Vuong, T.D., Qiu, D. et al. Advancements in breeding, genetics, and genomics for resistance to three nematode species in soybean. Theor Appl Genet 129, 2295–2311 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00122-016-2816-x

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Keywords

  • Quantitative Trait Locus
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
  • Nematode Species
  • Major Quantitative Trait Locus
  • Wild Soybean