Relocation of a rust resistance gene R 2 and its marker-assisted gene pyramiding in confection sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)
The rust resistance gene R 2 was reassigned to linkage group 14 of the sunflower genome. DNA markers linked to R 2 were identified and used for marker-assisted gene pyramiding in a confection type genetic background.
Due to the frequent evolution of new pathogen races, sunflower rust is a recurring threat to sunflower production worldwide. The inbred line Morden Cross 29 (MC29) carries the rust resistance gene, R 2 , conferring resistance to numerous races of rust fungus in the US, Canada, and Australia, and can be used as a broad-spectrum resistance resource. Based on phenotypic assessments and SSR marker analyses on the 117 F2 individuals derived from a cross of HA 89 with MC29 (USDA), R 2 was mapped to linkage group (LG) 14 of the sunflower, and not to the previously reported location on LG9. The closest SSR marker HT567 was located at 4.3 cM distal to R 2 . Furthermore, 36 selected SNP markers from LG14 were used to saturate the R 2 region. Two SNP markers, NSA_002316 and SFW01272, flanked R 2 at a genetic distance of 2.8 and 1.8 cM, respectively. Of the three closely linked markers, SFW00211 amplified an allele specific for the presence of R 2 in a marker validation set of 46 breeding lines, and SFW01272 was also shown to be diagnostic for R 2 . These newly developed markers, together with the previously identified markers linked to the gene R 13a , were used to screen 524 F2 individuals from a cross of a confection R 2 line and HA-R6 carrying R 13a . Eleven homozygous double-resistant F2 plants with the gene combination of R 2 and R 13a were obtained. This double-resistant line will be extremely useful in confection sunflower, where few rust R genes are available, risking evolution of new virulence phenotypes and further disease epidemics.
KeywordsSimple Sequence Repeat Marker Rust Resistance Rust Resistance Gene North America North Dakota
We thank Drs. Gerald Seiler and Gongjun Shi for critical review of the manuscript, and Angelia Hogness for technical assistance. This project was supported by the USDA-AMS Cooperative Agreement 12-25-B-1480 and the USDA-ARS CRIS Project No. 5442-21000-039-00D. Mention of trade names or commercial products in this report is solely for the purpose of providing specific information and does not imply recommendation or endorsement by the US Department of Agriculture. The USDA is an equal opportunity provider and employer.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
The experiments were performed in compliment with the current laws of USA.
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