Biochemical characterization in combination with genetic analyses in BC 2 S 1 plants and near-isogenic lines led to the detection and validation of C. baccatum loci affecting flavor, terpenoid content and Brix level.
The species Capsicum baccatum includes the most common hot peppers of the Andean cuisine, known for their rich variation in flavors and aromas. So far the C. baccatum genetic variation remained merely concealed for Capsicum annuum breeding, due to post-fertilization genetic barriers encountered in interspecific hybridization. However, to exploit the potential flavor wealth of C. baccatum we combined interspecific crossing with embryo rescue, resulting in a multi-parent BC2S1 population. Volatile and non-volatile compounds plus some physical characters were measured in mature fruits, in combination with taste evaluation by a sensory panel. An enormous variation in biochemical composition and sensory attributes was found, with almost all traits showing transgression. A population-specific genetic linkage map was developed for QTL mapping. BC2S1 QTLs were validated in an experiment with near-isogenic lines, resulting in confirmed genetic effects for physical, biochemical and sensory traits. Three findings are described in more detail: (1) A small C. baccatum LG3 introgression caused an extraordinary effect on flavor, resulting in significantly higher scores for the attributes aroma, flowers, spices, celery and chives. In an attempt to identify the responsible biochemical compounds few consistently up- and down-regulated metabolites were detected. (2) Two introgressions (LG10.1 and LG1) had major effects on terpenoid content of mature fruits, affecting at least 15 different monoterpenes. (3) A second LG3 fragment resulted in a strong increase in Brix without negative effects on fruit size. The mapping strategy, the potential application of studied traits and perspectives for breeding are discussed.
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The authors kindly acknowledge Harry Jonker and Yvonne Birnbaum at Plant Research International for performing the SPME–GC–MS analyses. In addition we thank Suzanne de Wit, Femke Willeboordse, Laure Pohu, Sander Bos, Tineke Benning and Paula de Grauw for performing a massive job on sample preparation and non-volatile measurements. Finally, we are grateful to all people at Rijk Zwaan who took care of perfect greenhouse management.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
The experiments comply with the current laws of the Netherlands.
Communicated by M. J. Havey.
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Eggink, P.M., Tikunov, Y., Maliepaard, C. et al. Capturing flavors from Capsicum baccatum by introgression in sweet pepper. Theor Appl Genet 127, 373–390 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00122-013-2225-3
- Linkage Group
- Fruit Size
- Total Soluble Solid