Theoretical and Applied Genetics

, Volume 126, Issue 8, pp 2065–2071 | Cite as

Identification of a novel gene, H34, in wheat using recombinant inbred lines and single nucleotide polymorphism markers

  • Chunlian Li
  • Mingshun Chen
  • Shiaoman Chao
  • Jianming Yu
  • Guihua Bai
Original Paper


Hessian fly (HF), Mayetiola destructor, is an important pest of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) worldwide. Because it has multiple biotypes that are virulent to different wheat HF resistance genes, pyramiding multiple resistance genes in a cultivar can improve resistance durability, and finding DNA markers tightly linked to these genes is essential to this process. This study identified quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for Hessian fly resistance (HFR) in the wheat cultivar ‘Clark’ and tightly linked DNA markers for the QTLs. A linkage map was constructed with single nucleotide polymorphism and simple sequence repeat markers using a population of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from the cross ‘Ning7840’ × ‘Clark’ by single-seed descent. Two QTLs associated with resistance to fly biotype GP were identified on chromosomes 6B and 1A, with the resistance alleles contributed from ‘Clark’. The QTL on 6B flanked by loci Xsnp921 and Xsnp2745 explained about 37.2 % of the phenotypic variation, and the QTL on 1A was flanked by Xgwm33 and Xsnp5150 and accounted for 13.3 % of phenotypic variation for HFR. The QTL on 6B has not been reported before and represents a novel wheat gene with resistance to HF, thus, it is designated H34. A significant positive epistasis was detected between the two QTLs that accounted for about 9.5 % of the mean phenotypic variation and increased HFR by 0.16. Our results indicated that different QTLs may contribute different degrees of resistance in a cultivar and that epistasis may play an important role in HFR.


Cetyl Trimethyl Ammonium Bromide Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Marker Wheat Chromosome Mayetiola Destructor Susceptible RILs 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



This is contribution number 13-002-J from the Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station. This project is partly funded by the National Research Initiative Competitive Grants CAP project 2011-68002-30029 from the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture. Authors also thank International Wheat SNP Consortium for assembling wheat 9K iSelect chips. Mention of trade names or commercial products in this publication is solely for the purpose of providing specific information and does not imply recommendation or endorsement by the US Department of Agriculture. USDA is an equal opportunity provider and employer.


  1. Amri AT, Cox TS, Hatchett JH (1990) Chromosomal location of the Hessian fly resistance gene H20 in ‘Jori’ durum wheat. J Hered 81:71–72Google Scholar
  2. Berzonsky WA, Ding H, Haley SD, Harris MO, Lamb RJ, Mckenzie RIH, Ohm HW, Patterson FL, Peairs F, Porter DR, Ratcliffe RH, Shanower TG (2003) Breeding wheat for resistance to insects. Plant Breed Rev 22:221–296Google Scholar
  3. Bouktila D, Mezghani M, Marrakchi M, Makni H (2006) Characterization of wheat random amplified polymorphic DNA markers associated with the H11 Hessian fly resistance gene. J Integr Plant Biol 48:958–964CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cainong JC, Zavatsky LE, Chen MS, Johnson J, Friebe B, Gill BS, Lukaszewski AJ (2010) Wheat-rye T2BS·2BL-2RL recombinants with resistance to Hessian fly (H21). Crop Sci 50:920–925CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Carlson SK, Patterson FL, Gallun RL (1978) Inheritance of resistance to Hessian fly derived from Triticum turgidum L. Crop Sci 18:1011–1014CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cavanagh C, Chao S, Wang S, Huang BE, Stephen S, Kiani S, Forrest K, Saintenac C, Brown-Guedira B, Akhunova A, See D, Bai G, Pumphrey M, Tomar L, Wong D, Kong S, Reynolds M, da Silva ML, Bockelman H, Talbert L, Anderson JA, Dreisigacker S, Baenziger S, Carter A, Korzun V, Morrell PL, J Dubcovsky J, Morell M, Sorrells M, Hayden M, Akhunov E (2013) Genome-wide comparative diversity uncovers multiple targets of selection for improvement in hexaploid wheat landraces and cultivars. PNAS USA. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1217133110
  7. Chen MS, Echegaray E, Whitworth RJ, Wang HY, Sloderbeck PE, Knutson A, Giles KL, Royer TA (2009) Virulence analysis of Hessian fly population from Texas, Oklahoma, and Kansas. Econ Entomol 102:774–780CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cox TS, Hatchett JH (1994) Hessian fly resistance gene H26 transferred from Triticum tauschii to common wheat. Crop Sci 34:958–960CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Doerge RW (2002) Multifactorial genetics: mapping and analysis of quantitative trait loci in experimental populations. Nat Rev 3:43–52Google Scholar
  10. Dweikat I, Ohm H, Patterson F, Cambron S (1997) Identification of RAPD markers for 11 Hessian fly resistance genes in wheat. Theor Appl Genet 94:419–423CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dweikat I, Zhang W, Ohm H (2002) Development of STS markers linked to Hessian fly resistance gene H6. Theor Appl Genet 105:766–770CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Friebe B, Jiang J, Raupp WJ, McIntosh RA, Gill BS (1996) Characterization of wheat-alien translocations conferring resistance to diseases and pests: current status. Euphytica 91:59–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gallun RL, Patterson FL (1977) Monosomic analysis of wheat for resistance to Hessian fly. J Hered 68:223–226Google Scholar
  14. Gill BS, Hatchett JH, Raupp WJ, Sears RG, Mrtin TJ (1986) Registration of KS85WGRC01 Hessian fly resistant hard red winter wheat germplasm. Crop Sci 26:1266–1267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gill BS, Hatchett HJ, Raupp WJ (1987) Chromosomal mapping of Hessian fly resistant gene H13 in the D genome of wheat. J Hered 78:97–100Google Scholar
  16. Gill BS, Wilson DL, Raupp WJ, Hatchett JH, Cox TS, Amri S, Sears RG (1991a) Registration of KS89WGRC3 and KS89WGRV6 Hessian fly-resistant hard red winter wheat germplasm. Crop Sci 31:245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gill BS, Wilson DL, Raupp WJ, Hatchett JH, Cox TS, Amri S, Sears RG (1991b) Registration of KS89WGRC4 hard red winter wheat germplasm with resistance to Hessian fly, greenbug, and soil-borne mosaic virus. Crop Sci 31:246Google Scholar
  18. Gould F (1998) Sustainability of transgenic insecticidal cultivars: integrating pest genetics and ecology. Annu Rev Entomol 43:701–726CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Jansen RC (2003) Quantitative trait loci in inbred lines. In: Balding DJ, Bishop M, Cannings C (eds) Handbook of statistical genetics. Wiley, Chichester, pp 445–476Google Scholar
  20. Kong L, Ohm HW, Cambron SE, Williams CE (2005) Molecular mapping determines that Hessian fly resistant gene H9 is located on chromosome 1A of wheat. Plant Breed 124:525–531CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kong L, Cambron SE, Ohm HW (2008) Hessian fly resistance genes H16 and H17 are mapped to a resistance gene cluster in the distal region of chromosome 1AS in wheat. Mol Breed 21:183–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Liu XM, Brown-Guedira GL, Hatchett JH, Owuoche JO, Chen MS (2005a) Genetic characterization and molecular mapping of a Hessian fly-resistance gene transferred from T. turgidum ssp. dicoccum to common wheat. Theor Appl Genet 111:1308–1315CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Liu XM, Feirz AK, Reese JC, Wilde GE, Gill BS, Chen MS (2005b) H9, H10, and H11 compose a cluster of Hessian fly-resistance genes in the distal gene-rich region of wheat chromosome 1AS. Theor Appl Genet 110:1473–1480CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Liu XM, Gill BS, Chen MS (2005c) Hessian fly resistance gene H13 is mapped to a distal cluster of resistance genes in chromosome 6DS of wheat. Theor Appl Genet 110:143–249Google Scholar
  25. Martin TJ, Harvey TL, Hatchett JH (1982) Registration of greenbug and Hessian fly resistance wheat germplasm. Crop Sci 22:1089CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Martín-Sánchez JA, Gómez-Colmenarejo M, Del Moral J, Sin E, Montes MJ, González-Belinchón C, Lopez-Braña I, Delibes A (2003) A new Hessian fly resistance gene (H30) transferred from the wild grass Aegilops triuncialis to hexaploid wheat. Theor Appl Genet 106:1248–1255 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Mcintosh RA, Yamazaki Y, Devos KM, Dubcovsky J, Rogers WJ, Appels R (2003) Catalogue of gene symbols for wheat. Proceedings of 10th international wheat genetics symposium. Paestum, Italy, September 2003.
  28. Miranda LM, Bland DE, Cambron SE, Lyerly JH, Johnson J, Buntin GD, Murphy JP (2010) Genetic mapping of an Aegilops tauschii-derived Hessian fly resistance gene in common wheat. Crop Sci 50:612–616CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Ohm HW, Shaner G, Foster JE, Patterson FL, Buechley G (1988) Registration of ‘Clark’ wheat. Crop Sci 28:1031–1032CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Ohm HW, Sharma HC, Patterson FL, Ratcliffe RH, Obanni M (1995) Linkage relationships among genes on wheat chromosome 5A that condition resistance to Hessian fly. Crop Sci 35:1603–1607CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Ratcliffe RH, Hatchett JH (1997) Biology and genetics of the Hessian fly and resistance in wheat. In: Bondari K (ed) New developments in entomology. Research Signpost Publications, Scientific Information Guild, Trivandrum, pp 47–56Google Scholar
  32. Ratcliffe RH, Cambron SE, Flanders KL, Bosque-Pérez NA, Clement SL, Ohm HW (2000) Biotype composition of Hessian fly (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) populations from the Southeastern, Mid-western, and Northwestern United States and virulence to resistant genes in wheat. J Econ Entomol 93:1319–1328CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Raupp WJ, Amer AT, Hatchett JH, Gill BS, Wilson DL, Cox TS (1993) Chromosomal location of Hessian fly resistance genes H22, H23, and H24 derived from Triticum tauschii in the D genome of wheat. J Hered 84:142–145Google Scholar
  34. Roberts JJ, Gallun RL (1984) Chromosome location of the H5 gene for resistance to the Hessian fly in wheat. J Hered 75:147–148Google Scholar
  35. Saghai-Maroof MA, Soliman KM, Jorgensen RA, Allard RW (1984) Ribosomal DNA spacer-length polymorphisms in barley: Mendelian inheritance, chromosomal location, and population dynamics. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 81:8014–8018CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Sardesai N, Nemacheck JA, Subramanyam S, Williams CE (2005) Identification and mapping of H32, a new wheat gene conferring resistance to Hessian fly. Theor Appl Genet 111:1167–1173CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Shukle RH, Subramanyam S, Saltzmann KA, Williams CE (2010) Ultrastructural changes in the midguts of Hessian fly larvae feeding on resistant wheat. J Insect Physiol 56:754–760CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Somers DJ, Isaac P, Edwards K (2004) A high-density microsatellite consensus map for bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Theor Appl Genet 109:1105–1114CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Stebbins NB, Patterson FL, Gallun RL (1982) Interrelationships among wheat genes H3, H6, H9, and H10 for Hessian fly resistance. Crop Sci 22:1029–1032CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Stebbins NB, Patterson FL, Gallun RL (1983) Inheritance of resistance of PI 94587 wheat to biotypes B and D of Hessian fly. Crop Sci 23:251–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Wang T, Xu SS, Harris MO, Hu J, Liu L, Cai X (2006) Genetic characterization and molecular mapping of Hessian fly resistance genes derived from Aegilops tauschii in synthetic wheat. Theor Appl Genet 113:611–618CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Wang JK, Li HH, Zhang LY, Meng L (2012) QTL IciMapping version 3.2.
  43. Williams CE, Collier N, Sardesai CC, Ohm HW, Cambron SE (2003) Phenotypic assessment and mapped markers for H31, a new wheat gene conferring resistance to Hessian fly (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae). Theor Appl Genet 107:1516–1523CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Yu GT, Cai XW, Harris MO, Gu YQ, Luo MC, Xu SS (2009) Saturation and comparative mapping of the genomic region harboring Hessian fly resistance gene H26 in wheat. Theor Appl Genet 118:1589–1599CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Yu GT, Williams CE, Harris MO, Cai XW, Mergoum M, Xu SS (2010) Development and validation of molecular markers closely linked to H32 for resistance to Hessian fly in wheat. Crop Sci 50:1325–1332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Zhao HX, Liu XM, Chen XM (2006) H22, a major resistance gene to the Hessian fly (Mayetiola destructor), is mapped to the distal region of wheat chromosome 1DS. Theor Appl Genet 113:1491–1496CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg (outside th USA) 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chunlian Li
    • 1
    • 2
  • Mingshun Chen
    • 3
  • Shiaoman Chao
    • 4
  • Jianming Yu
    • 2
  • Guihua Bai
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.College of AgronomyNorthwest A&F UniversityYanglingChina
  2. 2.Agronomy DepartmentKansas State UniversityManhattanUSA
  3. 3.Hard Winter Wheat Genetics Research UnitUSDA-ARSManhattanUSA
  4. 4.Cereal Crops Research UnitUSDA-ARSFargoUSA

Personalised recommendations