Theoretical and Applied Genetics

, Volume 124, Issue 4, pp 697–711 | Cite as

Identification of novel quantitative trait loci for days to ear emergence and flag leaf glaucousness in a bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) population adapted to southern Australian conditions

  • Dion Bennett
  • Ali Izanloo
  • James Edwards
  • Haydn Kuchel
  • Ken Chalmers
  • Mark Tester
  • Matthew Reynolds
  • Thorsten Schnurbusch
  • Peter Langridge
Original Paper


In southern Australia, where the climate is predominantly Mediterranean, achieving the correct flowering time in bread wheat minimizes the impact of in-season cyclical and terminal drought. Flag leaf glaucousness has been hypothesized as an important component of drought tolerance but its value and genetic basis in locally adapted germplasm is unknown. From a cross between Kukri and RAC875, a doubled-haploid (DH) population was developed. A genetic linkage map consisting of 456 DArT and SSR markers was used to detect QTL affecting time to ear emergence and Zadoks growth score in seven field experiments. While ear emergence time was similar between the parents, there was significant transgressive segregation in the population. This was the result of segregation for the previously characterized Ppd-D1a and Ppd-B1 photoperiod responsive alleles. QTL of smaller effect were also detected on chromosomes 1A, 4A, 4B, 5A, 5B, 7A and 7B. A novel QTL for flag leaf glaucousness of large, repeatable effect was detected in six field experiments, on chromosome 3A (QW.aww-3A) and accounted for up to 52 percent of genetic variance for this trait. QW.aww-3A was validated under glasshouse conditions in a recombinant inbred line population from the same cross. The genetic basis of time to ear emergence in this population will aid breeders’ understanding of phenological adaptation to the local environment. Novel loci identified for flag leaf glaucousness and the wide phenotypic variation within the DH population offers considerable scope to investigate the impact and value of this trait for bread wheat production in southern Australia.


Quantitative Trait Locus Doubled Haploid Quantitative Trait Locus Analysis Quantitative Trait Locus Mapping Flag Leaf 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



Authors would like to thank the staff at Australian Grain Technologies, for managing the field experiments in South Australia. Thank you to Dr. Matthew Hayden and Gai McMichael, Molecular Plant Breeding Collaborative Research Centre, who assisted with genotyping and linkage map development. Many thanks also to Mayra Jacqueline Barcelo and Tamara Urbalejo Rodriguez, CIMMYT, for dedicated management and phenotyping of the population in Obregon, Mexico in 2007. Thanks to Ardashir Kharabian Masouleh for assistance in collecting phenotypic data from the field experiments in Australia in 2006. While conducting this research, A. Izanloo was supported by a PhD scholarship from the Ministry of Science, Research and Technology of Iran (MSRTI) and T. Schnurbusch partly supported by a Research Fellowship, Feodor-Lynen-Program, from the Alexander-von-Humboldt Foundation, Bonn-Bad Godesberg, Germany, and partly by the Australian Centre for Plant Functional Genomics, Adelaide, Australia. We would like to thank the Grains Research and Development Corporation, the Australian Research Council and the South Australian State Government for funding this research.

Supplementary material

122_2011_1740_MOESM1_ESM.doc (62 kb)
Supplementary Table 1 Number of markers per chromosome, chromosome length (cM) and average cM between markers per chromosome of a genetic linkage map for the Kukri × RAC875 doubled haploid population (DOC 62 kb)
122_2011_1740_MOESM2_ESM.doc (100 kb)
Supplementary Table 2 Summary of all QTL detected for three traits (Days to ear emergence, Zadok score and flag leaf glaucousness) in the RAC875/Kukri doubled haploid and recombinant inbred line populations, in five field experiments in South Australia (BOL06, MIN06, ROSMET) and Northern Mexico (CIMD07, CIMI07) and one glasshouse experiment. The position of each QTL on their respective chromosomes, flanking markers, additive effect at that locus (negative indicates RAC875, positive is Kukri), QTL heritability at that site and the QTL LOD score are presented (DOC 100 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dion Bennett
    • 1
    • 2
  • Ali Izanloo
    • 1
    • 4
  • James Edwards
    • 1
    • 2
  • Haydn Kuchel
    • 2
  • Ken Chalmers
    • 1
  • Mark Tester
    • 1
  • Matthew Reynolds
    • 3
  • Thorsten Schnurbusch
    • 1
    • 5
  • Peter Langridge
    • 1
  1. 1.Australian Centre for Plant Functional Genomics, Waite CampusUniversity of Adelaide, PMB1Glen OsmondAustralia
  2. 2.Australian Grain TechnologiesRoseworthyAustralia
  3. 3.International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT)México, D.F.Mexico
  4. 4.Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of AgricultureUniversity of BirjandBirjandIran
  5. 5.Leibniz-Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research (IPK)GaterslebenGermany

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