Theoretical and Applied Genetics

, Volume 113, Issue 8, pp 1421–1435 | Cite as

Mapping QTL for dollar spot resistance in creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.)

  • N. Chakraborty
  • J. Curley
  • S. Warnke
  • M. D. Casler
  • G. Jung
Original Paper


Dollar spot caused by Sclerotinia homoeocarpa F. T. Bennett is the most economically important turf disease on golf courses in North America. Dollar spot resistance in a creeping bentgrass cultivar would greatly reduce the frequency, costs, and environmental impacts of fungicide application. Little work has been done to understand the genetics of resistance to dollar spot in creeping bentgrass. Therefore, QTL analysis was used to determine the location, number and effects of genomic regions associated with dollar spot resistance in the field. To meet this objective, field inoculations using a single isolate were performed over 2 years and multiple locations using progeny of a full sib mapping population ‘549 × 372’. Dollar spot resistance seems to be inherited quantitatively and broad sense heritability for resistance was estimated to be 0.88. We have detected one QTL with large effect on linkage group 7.1 with LOD values ranging from 3.4 to 8.6 and explaining 14–36% of the phenotypic variance. Several smaller effect QTL specific to rating dates, locations and years were also detected. The association of the tightly linked markers with the LG 7.1 QTL based on 106 progeny was further examined by single marker analysis on all 697 progeny. The high significance of the QTL on LG 7.1 at a sample size of 697 (< 0.0001), along with its consistency across locations, years and ratings dates, indicated that it was stable over environments. Markers tightly linked to the QTL can be utilized for marker-assisted selection in future bentgrass breeding programs.


  1. Arahana VS, Graef GL, Specht JE, Steadman JR, Eskridge KM (2001) Identification of QTL for resistance to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in soybean. Crop Sci 41:180–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Baldwin NA, Newell AJ (1992) Field production of fertile apothecia by Sclerotinia homoeocarpa in Festuca turf. J Sports Turf Res Inst 68:73–76Google Scholar
  3. Bonos SA, Casler MD, Meyer WA (2003) Inheritance of dollar spot resistance in creeping bentgrass. Crop Sci 43:2189–2196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bonos SA, Casler MD, Meyer WA (2004) Plant response and characteristics associated with dollar spot resistance in creeping bentgrass. Crop Sci 44:1763–1769CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Boulter JI, Boland GJ, Trevors JT (2002) Evaluation of composts for suppression of dollar spot (Sclerotinia homoeocarpa) of turfgrass. Plant Dis 86:405–410Google Scholar
  6. Burpee LL (1997) Control of dollar spot of creeping bentgrass caused by an isolate of Sclerotinia homoeocarpa resistant to benzomidazole and demethylation inhibitor fungicides. Plant Dis 81:1259–1263Google Scholar
  7. Chakraborty N, Bae J, Warnke S, Chang T, Jung G (2005) Linkage map construction in allotetraploid creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.). Theor Appl Genet 111:795–803PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chakraborty N, Chang T, Casler MD, Jung G (2006) Response of bentgrass cultivars to Sclerotinia homoeocarpa isolates representing 10 vegetative compatibility groups. Crop Sci 46:1237–1244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Couch HB (1995) Disease of turfgrasses. 3rd edn. Krieger Publ. Malabar, FlaGoogle Scholar
  10. Curley J, Sim SC, Warnke S, Leong S, Barker R, Jung G (2005) QTL mapping of resistance to gray leaf spot in ryegrass. Theor Appl Genet 111:1107–1117PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Lander E, Botstein D (1989) Mapping Mendelian factors underlying quantitative traits using RFLP linkage maps. Genetics 121:185–199PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Lespinasse D, Grivet L, Troispoux V, Rodier-Goud M, Pinard F, Seguin M (2000) Identification of QTL involved in the resistance to South American leaf blight (Microcyclus ulei) in the rubber tree. Theor Appl Genet 100:975–984CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Melchinger AE, Utz HF, Schön CC (1998) Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping using different testers and independent population samples in maize reveals low power of QTL detection and large bias in estimates of QTL effects. Genetics 149:383–403PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Miklas PN, Johnson WC, Delorme R, Gepts P (2001) QTL conditioning physiological resistance and avoidance to white mold in dry bean. Crop Sci 41:309–315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Paterson AH, Damon S, Hewitt JD, Zamir D, Rabinowitch HD, Lincoln SE, Lander ES, Tanksley SD (1991) Mendelian factors underlying quantitative traits in tomato: Comparison across species, generations, and environments. Genetics 127:181–197PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Portyanko VA, Chen G, Rines HW, Phillips RL, Leonard KJ, Ochocki GE, Stuthman DD (2005) Quantitative trait loci for partial resistance to crown rust, Puccinia coronata, in cultivated oat, Avena sativa L. Theor Appl Genet 111:313–324PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Qi X, Jiang G, Chen W, Niks RE, Stam P (1999) Isolate-specific QTL for partial resistance to Puccinia hordei in barley. Theor Appl Genet 99:877–884CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Sallaud C, Lorieux M, Roumen E, Tharreau D, Berruyer R, Svestasrani P, Garsmeur O, Ghesquire A, Notteghem J-L (2003) Identification of five new blast resistance genes in the highly blast-resistant rice variety IR64 using a QTL mapping strategy. Theor Appl Genet 106:794–803PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. SAS Institute Inc. (1999) SAS/STAT User’s Guide, Version 7-1, SAS Inst., Cary, NCGoogle Scholar
  20. Talukder ZI, McDonald AJS, Price AH (2005) Loci controlling partial resistance to rice blast do not show marked QTL × environment interaction when plant nitrogen status alters disease severity. New Phytologist 168:455–464PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Tanksley SD, Young ND, Paterson AH, Bonierbale MW (1993) RFLP mapping in plant breeding: new tools for an old science. Bio/Technol 7:257–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Van Ooijen JW, Voorips RE (2001) JoinMap 3.0, Software for the calculation of genetic linkage maps. Plant Res Int Wageningen, The NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  23. Van Ooijen JW, Boer MP, Jansen RC, Maliepaard C (2002) MapQTL® version 4.0: Software for the calculation of QTL positions on genetic maps. Plant Res Int Wageningen, The NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  24. Vargas JM Jr. (1994) Management of turfgrass diseases, 2nd edn. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  25. Walsh B, Ikeda SS, Boland GJ (1999) Biology and management of dollar spot (Sclerotinia homoeocarpa); an important disease of turfgrass. HortScience 34:13–21Google Scholar
  26. Wang D, Karle R, Iezzoni AF (2000) QTL analysis of flower and fruit traits in sour cherry. Theor Appl Genet 100:535–544CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Warnke SE (2003) Creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.). In: Casler MD, Duncan RR (eds) Turfgrass biology, genetics and breeding. Wiley, New Jersey, pp 175–185Google Scholar
  28. Warnke SE, Barker RE, Jung G, Sim S, Rouf Mian MA, Saha MC, Brilman LA, Dupal MP, Forster JW (2004) Genetic linkage mapping of an annual × perennial ryegrass population. Theor Appl Genet 109:294–304PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Wipff JK, Fricker C (2001) Gene flow from transgenic creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera) in the Willamette valley, Oregon. Int Turfgrass Soc Res J 9:224–242Google Scholar
  30. Xu XF, Mei HW, Luo LJ, Cheng XN, Li ZK (2002) RFLP-facilitated investigation of the quantitative resistance of rice to brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens). Theor Appl Genet 104:248–253PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Young ND (1996) QTL mapping and quantitative disease resistance in plants. Annu Rev Phytopathol 34:479–501PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Zou JH, Pan XB, Chen ZX, Xu JY, Lu JF, Zhai WX, Zhu LH (2000) Mapping quantitative trait loci controlling sheath blight resistance in two rice cultivars. Theor Appl Genet 101:569–573CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • N. Chakraborty
    • 1
  • J. Curley
    • 1
  • S. Warnke
    • 2
  • M. D. Casler
    • 3
  • G. Jung
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Crop SciencesUniversity of IllinoisUrbana ChampaignUSA
  2. 2.USDA-ARS, Floral and Nursery Plants Research UnitBeltsvilleUSA
  3. 3.USDA-ARS, US Dairy Forage Research CenterMadisonUSA
  4. 4.Department of Plant, Soil and Insect SciencesUniversity of MassachusettsAmherstUSA

Personalised recommendations