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Einfluss früher Gewalterfahrungen von Frauen auf die Mutter-Kind-Beziehung

Daten von Heidelberger und Berliner Mutter-Kind-Dyaden

Impact of early life maltreatment of women on the mother-child relationship

Data from mother-child dyads from Heidelberg and Berlin

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Zusammenfassung

Frühe Gewalterfahrungen können schwerwiegende und lang anhaltende Auswirkungen auf die direkt Betroffenen, aber auch auf die nächste Generation haben. Anhand vorliegender Daten unserer Untersuchungen von Heidelberger und Berliner Mutter-Kind-Dyaden konnten wir zeigen, dass frühe Gewalterfahrungen zu Veränderungen auf behavioraler und neuronaler Ebene einschließlich Persönlichkeitseigenschaften und Bindungsstil der betroffenen Frauen führen mit negativen Folgen für die Beziehung zu ihrem Kind. Die Kinder dieser Mütter mit frühen Gewalterfahrungen haben ein erhöhtes Risiko, misshandelt zu werden, in ihrer Entwicklung verzögert zu sein sowie eine psychische Störung zu entwickeln. Zudem zeigen sie eine erhöhte Kortisolkonzentration sowie eine geringere Inhibitionskontrolle. Dabei spielt es eine Rolle, ob die Mutter frühe Gewalterfahrungen erlebt hat, selbst aber resilient ist, d. h. (bis zum Untersuchungszeitpunkt) keine psychische Störung entwickelt hat, oder ob die Mutter zusätzlich zu den erlebten frühen Gewalterfahrungen auch eine psychische Störung entwickelt hat. Die Kinder von Müttern mit frühen Gewalterfahrungen und einer psychischen Störung scheinen besonders großem Stress ausgesetzt zu sein und weisen die schwersten Beeinträchtigungen und Risiken auf. Basierend auf den vorliegenden Ergebnissen werden Implikationen für die Praxis diskutiert und eine mögliche Intervention in Form eines Elterntrainings zur Stärkung der Mentalisierungsfähigkeit dargestellt.

Abstract

Early life maltreatment can have severe and long-lasting consequences for the directly affected individual as well as for the next generation. Data from our research including mother-child dyads from Heidelberg and Berlin show that early life maltreatment is associated with behavioral and neural changes including personality traits and attachment style of the affected mothers that negatively affect their relationship with their child. The children of these mothers affected by early life maltreatment have an elevated risk to be maltreated and to develop mental disorders. They also show a heightened cortisol concentration and a reduced inhibition control. It seems to be of importance whether the mother has experienced early life maltreatment but is resilient, meaning that she has not developed a mental disorder (up to the time of examination) or whether in addition to the early life maltreatment she has developed a mental disorder later in life. Children of mothers with early life maltreatment and a lifetime mental disorder seem to be especially exposed to stress and show the greatest impairments and risks. Based on the existing data from our research practical and clinical implications are discussed and one possible intervention in the form of a training of mentalization competencies for parents is presented.

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Förderung

Gefördert durch das Bundeministerium für Bildung und Forschung (BMBF; Förderkennzeichen: 01KR1207A, 01KR1803B).

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Correspondence to C. Neukel.

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Interessenkonflikt

C. Neukel, K. Hillmann, K. Bertsch, F. Bermpohl, D. Kluczniok, E. Möhler, C. Reck, F. Resch, M. Kaess, R. Brunner und S.C. Herpertz geben an, dass kein Interessenkonflikt besteht.

Dieser Beitrag ist zwar ein Review-Beitrag, die dargestellten Studien im Review wurden aber teilweise von den Autoren selbst durchgeführt und veröffentlicht.

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Alle Koautoren haben der finalen Version des Manuskripts zugestimmt.

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Neukel, C., Hillmann, K., Bertsch, K. et al. Einfluss früher Gewalterfahrungen von Frauen auf die Mutter-Kind-Beziehung. Nervenarzt 90, 235–242 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00115-018-0662-6

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00115-018-0662-6

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