Soft-bodied fossils from the upper Valongo Formation (Middle Ordovician: Dapingian-Darriwilian) of northern Portugal

Abstract

Soft-bodied preservation is common in the Cambrian but comparatively rare in the Ordovician. Here, a new deposit preserving soft-bodied fossils is reported from the Middle Ordovician (Dapingian-Darriwilian) upper Valongo Formation of northern Portugal. The deposit contains the first known occurrences of soft-bodied fossils from the Middle Ordovician (Dapingian-Darriwilian) of Portugal and is the first Ordovician example of soft-tissue preservation involving carbonaceous films from the Iberian Peninsula. It also represents the lone deposit of soft-bodied fossils from the Middle Ordovician of northern Gondwana. Thus temporally, it lies between the exceptional deposits of the Lower Ordovician of Fezouata (Morocco) and the Upper Ordovician of the Soom Shale (South Africa); it also serves as a biogeographic link between these and the various Ordovician soft-bodied deposits in Laurentia. The soft-bodied fossils come from the deep-water slates of the upper part of the Valongo Formation and include a discoidal fossil questionably referable to Patanacta, wiwaxiid sclerites, and a possible pseudoarctolepid arthropod.

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Acknowledgements

We would like to thank P. Thapa for his assistance using the SEM. P. Van Roy is thanked for his comments on a previous version of the manuscript. The editor, Allison Daley, William Ausich, and an anonymous referee are thanked for their comments. This is a contribution to ICT, Institute of Earth Sciences, Department of Geosciences, Environment and Spatial Planning, University of Porto, and to the IGCP Project 653.

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ESM 3
figure6

EDX spectrum and Elemental maps of Patanacta? sp. indet. (FCUP/DGAOT 3SPC). a Upper right of the specimen. b Center of the specimen, obscured by relief change. c The matrix. d Right of the center of the specimen. Locations based on Fig. 3. Scale bars are 1 mm. (PNG 2841 kb)

ESM 4
figure7

EDX spectrum and Elemental maps of the probable wiwaxiid sclerites (FCUP/DGAOT 5SPC). a Thin end of the right sclerite. b Wide end of the right sclerites. c The matrix. Locations based on Fig. 4. Scale bars are 1 mm. (PNG 3144 kb)

ESM 1

Table of Ordovician deposits with documented soft-tissue preservation, organized by age. (XLS 25 kb)

ESM 2

Table of Ordovician disc-shaped soft-bodied fossils. (XLSX 10 kb)

High resolution image (TIF 26405 kb)

High resolution image (TIF 26357 kb)

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Kimmig, J., Couto, H., Leibach, W.W. et al. Soft-bodied fossils from the upper Valongo Formation (Middle Ordovician: Dapingian-Darriwilian) of northern Portugal. Sci Nat 106, 27 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00114-019-1623-z

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Keywords

  • Soft-tissue preservation
  • Discoidal fossils
  • Wiwaxia
  • Bivalved arthropod
  • Ordovician
  • Portugal