Effects of environmental parameters on the chestnut gall wasp and its complex of indigenous parasitoids
The chestnut gall wasp (CGW), Dryocosmus kuriphilus, an invasive pest native to China, has caused severe yield and economic losses to chestnut production in Europe since its arrival in 2002. In Southern Italy, the complex of indigenous parasitoids colonizing CGW was monitored between 2013 and 2015, with the aim of estimating the composition of the indigenous parasitoid complex, its ability to control CGW populations, and the interactions of both factors with several measured environmental parameters. We compared results among three differently managed field types. Results showed an increase in the rate of parasitism both when the host population density was lower and in unmanaged chestnut stands with more natural conditions. The percentage of parasitism in galls was related to morphological traits of the galls and to higher seasonal temperatures, which reduced the parasitism intensity because CGW develops earlier under such conditions. The host–parasitoid mortality inside galls varied among sites and was associated mostly with rot fungi during wet spring and summer months. Parasitoid species richness was similar among the study sites, but the proportion of parasitoid species differed between orchards and unmanaged coppice stands. The timing of attack by parasitoids followed a species-specific successional sequence throughout the larva-to-adult life cycle of the CGW. These interactions should be considered in future research on trophic relationships and when modeling invasive scenarios for new pest species.
KeywordsChestnut Cynipidae Dryocosmus kuriphilus Gall Host–parasitoid–environment Phenology
We would like to thank Russo Diego and Vono Gregorio for support with monitoring and Chiara Ferracini for contributing to insect identification. We are grateful to Lorenzo Covarelli and Laura Tosi from the University of Perugia for isolating and identifying fungi from galls and to Giovanni Spampinato from Università Mediterranea of Reggio Calabria for identifying plant species.
CPB and UB conceived and designed research. CPB conducted experiments. CPB and UB analyzed data. CPB and UB wrote the manuscript. All authors read and approved the manuscript.
This research was financially supported by Ministero dell’Istruzione, dell’Università e della Ricerca (PRIN 2010–2013, GEISCA project—Global Exotic Insect Sustainable Control Agroforestry), assigned to C. Bonsignore (Reggio Calabria) and U. Bernardo (Portici). Aspromonte National Park N. 451 [The cynipid gall wasp (Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu) in the National Park of Aspromonte: Study on adaptation to new environments and ecological response of native natural enemies] was assigned to C. Bonsignore (Reggio Calabria).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
- Aebi A, Schonrogge K, Melika G, Alma A, Bosios G, Quacchia A, Picciau L, Abe Y, Moriya S, Yaras K, Seljak G, Stone GN (2006) Parasitoid recruitment to the globally invasive chestnut gall wasp Dryocosmus kuriphilus. In: Ozaki K, Yukwa J, Ohgushi T, Price PW (eds) Galling arthropods and their associates, ecology and evolution. Springer-Verlag, Tokyo, pp 103–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Aino S (1964) Breeding pest-resistant trees: Proceedings of a N.A.T.O. and N.S.F. Gerhold HD, Mcdermott RE, Schreiner EJ (editors) [place unknown] ElsevierGoogle Scholar
- Brussino G, Bosio G, Baudino M, Giordano R, Ramello F, Melika G (2002) A dangerous exotic insect threatening European chestnut. Inf Agrar 58:59–61Google Scholar
- de Vere Graham MWR, Gijswijt MJ (1998) Revision of the European species of Torymus Dalman (s. Lat.) (Hymenoptera: Torymidae). Zool Verhandel 317:1–202Google Scholar
- Fan B, Zhu DH (2010) Molecular phylogenetic relationships of Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu of different geographical populations based on partial sequences of 16S rRNA gene. J Nat Sci Hunan Norm Univ 33:78–82Google Scholar
- Ferracini C, Bertolino S, Bernardo U, Bonsignore CP, Faccoli M, Ferrari E, Lupi D, Maini S, Mazzone L, Nugnes F, Rocco A, Santi F, Tavella L (2018) Do Torymus sinensis (Hymenoptera: Torymidae) and agroforestry system affect native parasitoids associated with the Asian chestnut gall wasp? Biol Control. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocontrol.2018.01.009
- Francati S, Alma A, Ferracini C, Pollini A, Dindo ML (2015) Indigenous parasitoids associated with Dryocosmus kuriphilus in a chestnut production area of Emilia Romagna (Italy). Bull Insectol 68:127–134Google Scholar
- Gibert P, Allemand R, Henri H, Huey RB (2010) Local adaptation and evolution of parasitoid interactions in an invasive species, Drosophila subobscura. Evol Ecol Res 12:873–883Google Scholar
- Gopalakrishnan C, Narayanan K (1989) Occurrence of Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht and its pathogenicity on guava scale Chloropulvinaria psidii Maskell (Hemiptera: Coccidae). Curr Sci 58:92–93Google Scholar
- Graziosi I, Santi F (2008) Chestnut gall wasp (Dryocosmus kuriphilus): spreading in Italy and new records in Bologna province. Bull Insectol 61:343–348Google Scholar
- Kato K, Hijii N (2001) Ovipositional traits of the chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae). Entomol Sci 4:295–299Google Scholar
- Kos K, Kriston E, Melika G (2015) Invasive chestnut gall wasp Dryocosmus kuriphilus (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae), its native parasitoid community and association with oak gall wasps in Slovenia. EJE 112:698–704Google Scholar
- Lotfalizadeh H, Delvare G, Rasplus JY (2008) Sycophila pistacina (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae): a valid species. EJE 105:137–147Google Scholar
- Magro P, Speranza S, Stacchiotti M, Martignoni D, Paparatti B (2010) Gnomoniopsis associated with necrosis of leaves and chestnut galls induced by Dryocosmus kuriphilus. New Dis Rep 21:15Google Scholar
- Matošević D, Melika G (2013) Recruitment of native parasitoids to a new invasive host: first results of Dryocosmus kuriphilus parasitoid assemblage in Croatia. Bull Insectol 66:231–238Google Scholar
- Matošević D, Quacchia A, Kriston É, Melika G (2014) Biological control of the invasive Dryocosmus kuriphilus (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae)—an overview and the first trials in Croatia. Dijana Vuletić, editor SEEFOR 5:3–12Google Scholar
- Moriya S, Shiga S, Adachi I (2003) Classical biological control of the chestnut gall wasp in Japan. In: Proceedings of the 1st international symposium on biological control of arthropods, Honolulu, Hawaii, 14–18 January 2002. United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, pp 407–415Google Scholar
- Murakami Y (1980) Current topics on the chestnut gall wasp—experience in China. Nogyo oyobi Engei (Agric Hortic) 55:249–253 (in Japanese)Google Scholar
- Murakami Y (1981) The parasitoids of Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) in Japan and the introduction of a promising natural enemy from China (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea). J Fac Agric Kyushu Univ 25:167–174Google Scholar
- Noyes JS (2002) Catalogue of the Chalcidoidea of the world. CD-Rom. Expert Center for Taxonomic Information, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
- Nugnes F, Gualtieri L, Bonsignore CP, Parillo R, Annarumma R, Griffo R, Bernardo U (2018) Resistance of a local ecotype of Castanea sativa to Dryocosmus kuriphilus (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) in Southern Italy. Forests 9: in pressGoogle Scholar
- Panzavolta T, Bernardo U, Bracalini M, Cascone P, Croci F, Gebiola M, Iodice L, Tiberi R, Guerrieri E (2013) Native parasitoids associated with Dryocosmus kuriphilus in Tuscany, Italy. Bull Insectol 66:195–201Google Scholar
- Quacchia A, Moriya S, Bosio G (2014) Effectiveness of Torymus sinensis in the biological control of Dryocosmus kuriphilus in Italy. Acta Hortic (1043):199–204Google Scholar
- Romani R, Rondoni G, Gragnoli L, Pergolari P, Santinelli C, Rossi Stacconi MV, Ricci C (2010) Indagini bio-etologiche e morfologiche su Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu. Atti della Accademia Nazionale Italiana di Entomologia, Rendiconti 58:97–104Google Scholar
- Santi F, Maini S (2011) New association between Dryocosmus kuriphilus and Torymus flavipes in chestnut trees in the Bologna area (Italy): first results. Bull Insectol 64:275–278Google Scholar
- Schmitt T (2006) Molecular biogeography of Europe: Pleistocene cycles and postglacial trends. Front Zool 2007:4–11Google Scholar
- Seljak G (2006) Chestnut gall wasp—Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu. Report—Phytosanitary Administration of the Republic of Slovenia [online] URL: http://www.furs.si/
- Tang CT, Wu SM, Yen CF, Chang RJ, Yang MM (2015) Successful colonization of a new invasive pest, the chestnut gall wasp Dryocosmus kuriphilus (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae), in Taiwan. Formos Entomol 35:135–142Google Scholar
- Torii T (1959) Studies on the biological control of the chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu (Hym. Cynipidae), with particular reference to the utilization of its indigenous natural enemies. J Fac Agric Shinshu Univ 2:71–149Google Scholar
- Tschumi M, Albrecht M, Entling MH, Jacot K (2015) High effectiveness of tailored flower strips in reducing pests and crop plant damage. Proc R Soc Lond B Biol 282(20151369). https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2015.1369
- Viggiani G, Nugnes F (2010) Description of the larval stages of Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae), with notes on their phenology. JEAR Series II 42:39–45Google Scholar
- Vinale F, Ruocco M, Manganiello G, Guerrieri E, Bernardo U, Mazzei P, Piccolo A, Sannino F, Caira S, Woo SL, Lorito M (2014) Metabolites produced by Gnomoniopsis castanea associated with necrosis of chestnut galls. CBTA 1:1–3Google Scholar
- Visentin I, Gentile S, Valentino D, Gonthier P, Tamietti G, Cardinale F (2012) Gnomoniopsis castanea sp. nov. (Gnomoniaceae, Diaporthales) as the causal agent of nut rot in sweet chestnut. J Plant Pathol 94:411–419Google Scholar
- Yara K, Matsuo K, Sasawaki T, Shimoda T, Moriya S (2012) Influence of the introduced parasitoid Torymus sinensis (Hymenoptera: Torymidae) on T. koreanus and T. beneficus as indigenous parasitoids of the chestnut gall wasp Dryocosmus kuriphilus (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) on chestnut trees in Nagano Prefecture, Japan. Appl Entomol Zool 47:55–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Yasumatsu K (1951) A new Dryocosmus injurious to chestnut trees in Japan (Hym., Cynipidae). Mushi 22:89–93Google Scholar
- Yasumatsu K, Kamijo K (1979) Chalcidoid parasites of Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu (Cynipidae) in Japan, with descriptions of five new species (Hymenoptera). Esakia 14:93–111Google Scholar