Naturwissenschaften

, Volume 101, Issue 9, pp 745–751 | Cite as

Duration of memory of dominance relationships in a group living cichlid

  • Takashi Hotta
  • Tomohiro Takeyama
  • Lyndon Alexander Jordan
  • Masanori Kohda
Original Paper

Abstract

Animal contests are costly and tend to escalate when rivals have similar competitive abilities. Individuals that remember dominance relationships with rivals may avoid repeated agonistic interactions and hence avoid the costs of repeated escalation of contests. However, it can be difficult to experimentally disentangle the effects of memory from those of loser effects (losers behaving subordinately due to prior defeats). Here, we test whether loser effects or individual memory mediate contest behaviour in the African cichlid, Julidochromis transcriptus. We find that on days 3 and 5 after initial contests, losers display subordinate behaviour to contest winners but not to novel contestants. However, this effect disappears after 7 days, at which time losers do not display subordinate behaviour to either rival. These results show that (1) this fish can recall a previously dominant contestant for up to 5 days and (2) as no subordinate displays were shown to the novel contestant, there are no evidences for loser effects in this species. Such short-term memory of past interactions may have broad significance in social species with repeated interactions.

Keywords

Individual recognition Memory Loser effect African cichlid 

References

  1. Arnott G, Elwood RW (2009) Assessment of fighting ability in animal contests. Anim Behav 77:991–1004CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Awata S, Kohda M (2004) Parental roles and the amount of care in a bi-parental substrate brooding cichlid: the effect of size differences within pairs. Behaviour 141:1135–1149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Awata S, Takeuchi H, Kohda M (2006) The effect of body size on mating system and parental roles in a biparental cichlid fish (Julidochromis transcriptus): a preliminary laboratory experiment. J Ethol 24:125–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Braithwaite VA (2005) Cognitive ability in fish. Fish Physiol 24:1–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Briffa M, Sneddon LU (2010) Contest behavior. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  6. Cho GK, Heath DD (2000) Comparison of tricaine methanesulphonate (MS222) and clove oil anaesthesia effects on the physiology of juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum). Aquacul Res 31:537–546CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Colgan P (1983) Comparative social recognition. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  8. Congleton JL (2006) Stability of some commonly measured blood-chemistry variables in juvenile salmonids exposed to a lethal dose of the anaestethic MS-222. Aquacul Res 37:1146–1149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cornwallis CK, Uller T (2009) Towards an evolutionary ecology of sexual traits. Trend Ecol Evol 25:145–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Dugatkin LA (1997) Winner and loser effects and the structure of dominance hierarchies. Behav Ecol 8:583–587CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dukas R (1999) Cost of memory: ideas and predictions. J Theo Biol 197:41–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Enquist M, Leimar O, Ljungberg T, Mallner Y, Segerdahl N (1990) A test of the sequential assessment game: fighting in the cichlid fish Nannacara anomala. Anim Behav 40:1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Garcia MJ, Paiva L, Lennox M, Sivaraman B, Wong SC, Earley RL (2012) Assessment strategies and the effects of fighting experience on future contest performance in the green anole (Anolis carolinensis). Ethology 118:821–834CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Griffiths SW, Magurran AE (1997) Schooling preferences for familiar fish vary with group size in a wild guppy population. Proc Roy Soc B 264:547–551CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hick K, Reddon AR, O’Connor CM, Balshine S (2014) Strategic and tactical fighting decisions in cichlid fishes with divergent social systems. Behaviour 151:47–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hock K, Huber R (2008) Models of winner and loser effects: a cost-benefit analysis. Behaviour 146:69–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hsu Y, Earley RL, Wolf LL (2006) Modulation of aggressive behavior by fighting experience: mechanisms and contest outcomes. Biol Rev 81:33–74PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Huber R, Dalego A (1998) Serotonin alters decisions to withdrew in fighting crayfish, Astacus astacus: the motivational concept revisited. J Comp Physiol A 182:573–583CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Huntingford F, Turner A (1987) Animal conflict. Chapman & Hall, LondonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Izawa E, Watanabe S (2008) Formation of linear dominance relationship in captive jungle crows (Corvus macrorhynchos): implications for individual recognition. Behav Proc 78:44–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Järvi T, Bakken T (1984) The function of variation in the breast stripe of the great tits (Parus major). Anim Behav 32(2):590–596CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Johnsson JI (1997) Individual recognition affects aggression and dominance relations in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Ethology 103:267–282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Jordan LA, Brooks RC (2012) Recent social history alters male courtship preferences. Evolution 66–1:280–287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Konings A (1998) Tanganyika cichlids in their natural habitats. Cichlid PressGoogle Scholar
  25. Kraemer PJ, Golding JM (1997) Adaptive forgetting in animals. Psy Bull Rev 4:480–491CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Lai R, Johnston RE (2002) Individual recognition after fighting by golden hamster: a new method. Physiol Behav 76:225–239PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Lopez P, Martin J (2001) Fighting rules and rival recognition reduce costs of aggression in male lizards, Podarcis hispanica. Behav Eco Soc 49:111–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Mackney PA, Hughes RN (1995) Foraging behaviour and memory window in sticklebacks. Behaviour 132:1241–1253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Mesterton-Gibbons M (1999) On the evolution of pure winner and loser effects: a game-theoretic model. Bull Math Biol 61:1151–1186PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Miklosi A, Haller J, Csanyi V (1992) Different duration of memory for conspecific and heterospecific fish in the paradise fish (Macropodus opercularis L.). Ethology 90:29–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. O’Connor KI, Metcalfe NB, Taylor AC (2000) Familiarity influences body darkening in territorial disputes between juvenile salmon. Anim Behav 59:1095–1101PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Oyegbile TO, Marrler CA (2005) Winning fights elevates testosterone levels in California mice and enhances future ability to win fights. Horm Behav 48:259–267PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Taborsky M, Limberger D (1981) Helpers in fish. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 9:143–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Thomas P, Roberston L (1991) Plasma cortisol and glucose stress responses of red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) to handling and shallow water stressors and anesthesia with MS-222, quinaldine sulphate and metomidate. Aquaculture 96:69–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Tibbetts EA, Dale J (2007) Individual recognition: it is good to be different. Trend Ecol Evol 22:529–537CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Volpato GL, Luchiari AC, Duarte CRA, Barreto RE, Ramanzini GC (2003) Eye color as an indicator of social rank in the fish Nile tilapia. Braz J Med Biol Res 36:1659–1663PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Wagner GN, Singer TD, McKinly RS (2003) The ability of clove oil and MS-222 to minimize handling stress in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum). Aquacul Res 34:1139–1146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Winberg S, Nilsson GE (1993) Roles of brain monoamine neurotransmitters in agonistic behaviour and stress reactions, with particular reference to fish. Comp Biochem Physiol 106C:597–614Google Scholar
  39. Wong MYL, Munday PL, Buston PM, Jones GR (2008) Fasting or feasting in a fish social hierarchy. Curr Biol 18:R372–R373PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Takashi Hotta
    • 1
  • Tomohiro Takeyama
    • 1
  • Lyndon Alexander Jordan
    • 1
  • Masanori Kohda
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biology and Geosciences, Graduate School of ScienceOsaka City UniversitySumiyoshiJapan

Personalised recommendations