, Volume 98, Issue 1, pp 87–95

The earliest record of birch mice from the Early Miocene Nei Mongol, China

Original Paper

DOI: 10.1007/s00114-010-0744-1

Cite this article as:
Kimura, Y. Naturwissenschaften (2011) 98: 87. doi:10.1007/s00114-010-0744-1


The earliest species of birch mouse, Sicista primus sp. nov., was recovered from the 17-Ma-old (Early Miocene) Gashunyinadege locality, central Nei Mongol, China. It is ~9 Ma older than the previous first appearance datum of Sicista in Eurasia. This study indicates that North American Macrognathomys is a synonym of Eurasian Sicista, having 12 shared dental characters. As a result, the biogeography of dipodids indicates that Asian Sicista dispersed to North America as opposed to the hypothesis that Sicista originated from the North American clade. Sicista is one of the few extant rodent genera that originated as early as the Early Miocene.


Sicista Sicistinae Nei Mongol Inner Mongolia Early Miocene 

Institutional abbreviation


Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology, Beijing, China


National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC, USA


South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Rapid City, SD, USA

Supplementary material

114_2010_744_MOESM1_ESM.doc (1 mb)
S1Summary of Kimura (2010) (DOC 1043 kb)
114_2010_744_MOESM2_ESM.doc (512 kb)
S2Remeasurement of the holotype (SDSM 8396) of “M.gemmacollis Green (1977) using a Keyence VHX-1000 digital microscope (at ×200). Cast is provided by South Dakota School of Mines and Technology. The m3/m1 and m2/m1 ratios in the cast are the same as those calculated from the outline of the original specimen drawn at ×50 using a camera lucida. The measurement differences between Green (1977) and this study probably come from measurement errors in Green (1977) (DOC 512 kb)
114_2010_744_MOESM3_ESM.doc (148 kb)
S3Occlusal views of S. concolor concolor (A and B, USNM 200398) collected in Heilongjiang, China, and S. concolor flava (C and D, USNM 173796) collected in the Sind Valley, India. A and C, upper dentition; B and D, lower dentition. Scale bar equals 1 mm (DOC 147 kb)
114_2010_744_MOESM4_ESM.doc (35 kb)
S4Length ratios of m3 to m1 and m2 to m1 of Plesiosminthus (DOC 35 kb)
114_2010_744_MOESM5_ESM.doc (28 kb)
S5Summary of Kimura (in press b) (DOC 28 kb)
114_2010_744_MOESM6_ESM.doc (32 kb)
S6Description of characters and character states used in the phylogenetic analysis of Kimura (in press b). Characters taken or modified from Wang et al. (2009) and López-Antoñanzas and Sen (2006) are indicated as WQ and LS in square brackets, respectively. All characters are equally unordered and unweighted (DOC 31 kb)
114_2010_744_MOESM7_ESM.doc (36 kb)
S7Character matrix of for phylogenetic analysis of Plesiosminthus, Megasminthus and Sicista used in the phylogenetic analysis of Kimura (in press b). Missing or unknown data are coded as ‘?’. ‘A’, ‘B’, ‘C’, ‘D’, ‘E’, and ‘F’ are designated for polymorphic character states, ‘0/1’, ‘0/2’, ‘0/3’, ‘1/2’, ‘2/3’, and ‘1/3’, respectively. Characters are listed in Supplementary Table 1 (DOC 36 kb)

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Roy M. Huffington Department of Earth SciencesSouthern Methodist UniversityDallasUSA

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